Ancient Roots of American Democracy


First city-states arise in Sumer

5300 BC

Sumer was a bunch of many city-states. The kings of the city-states exercised political power and religious authority. So it was a monarcy and an autocracy.

Sargon of Akkad Formed Empire

2334 BCE - 2279 BCE

-conquested the first city-state
-empire included parts of Mesopotamia
-ruled from a capital
-empire included parts of Mesopotamia
first person in recorded history to create a multinethnic, centrally rules empire
-monarchy and autocracy, ruled in capital as a king (one person ruling)
-people did not have the right to vote for leader

Hammurabi's Code

1750 BC

-Divine Right theory
-Went by "An eye for an eye" method
-If you did not follow the law you would be punished
-Monarchy, Ruled by a king chosen by God
-No right to vote for leader
-Rules told people of town what there requirements were
-Babylonian law code
-Hammurabi activated the code
-The Code consisted of 282 laws
-en-scripted on big rock that was in the middle of town so everyone could see it

Athens Formed Direct Democracy

550 BC

-Modern Day government
-social contract-the people gave the government its power to rule and in return the government had to respect the rights of the people
-elected president
-branches of government
-developed in Athens
voters were influenced to political satire
-Pericles was the greatest lasting leader

Roman Republic Formed

509 B.C.E.

-Ancient Roman civilization's government operated as a republic
-Hierarchical (people were given social placement and everyone had a different ranking)
-Social Contract, people gave gov. power, and gov. respects peoples rights
-people voted
-woman could not vote

Roman Empire Formed

44 BC

-created through military and dividing and conquering anyone who disagreed with it (war), also well defended
-new territories made Rome a very rich city
- included most of what would now be considered Western Europe.
-control of this big empire was through system of administration, disciplined army, and communication
-Provinces were controlled by Roman governors appointed by the emperor.
-and an efficient network of roads was built both to allow troops to move through the empire and to help with trade.
-Taxes were raised which helped finance its army.
-Diverse people and cultures became part of the Roman Empire were brought together by Roman culture and Roman ideas of government and citizenship.
-formation of the Roman Empire began under the Roman Republic
- formed mostly by the early Roman emperors which is a autocratic government

Feudalism began in Europle

900 A.D

-the governments of Europe were constantly under attack by nomads.
-Communities did not feel that their governments were providing good protection
-As the monarchs of central governments lost power a new type of government called Feudalism came into play.
-Feudalism began as monarchs gave control of local territories to lords
-Feudalism involved the relationship between
landowners and the most powerful landowners. the most powerful provided support and
protection to less powerful landowners who had enough wealth arms and horses. The less powerful landowners owed
military service to the most powerful.

Rise of absolute monarachies


-several monarchs in western and eastern Europe grew the power of their central governments.
-the kings, emperors, or sultans made sure of their position as the supreme ruler and power holder
-they surrounded themselves with followers and advisers who were strong believers of an absolute ruler
- those that opposed their behavior and power were explained too that they had been granted the divine right(the right of a sovereign to rule as set forth by the theory of government that holds that a monarch receives the right to rule directly from God and not from the people) of kings

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

-The war was mostly between the supporters of King Charles I (the Royalists) and the supporters of the rights and privileges of Parliament (the Parliamentarians).
- Parliamentary victory
-Royalist wanted absolute power and the divine right of kings
-Parliamentarians wanted to give the Parliament supreme control over administration

Glorious Revolution in England

1688 - 1689

-the overthrow of King James II of England by a union of English Parliamentarians with the William III.
- William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his rise of the English throne
-resulted in the removal of James II and the establishment of William III and Mary II as joint monarchs

American Revolution

1775 - 1783
  • thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire to become the United States of America.
  • first rejected the authority of the Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation, and then got rid of all royal officials. the colonists had declared themselves independent after a long war where Britain was forced to give independence of the United States. -wanted liberty,freedom, independence, and rights