Ancient Roots of American Government

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First City-States Arise in Sumer

3500 BC - 2000 BC

The cities of Sumer's goverment was defined as monarchys and democracys because the cities were governed by priest kings. Sumer evolved from a force theory. The people were considered a lower class than the rulers but they had the right to vote people into the Assembly. The kings also had to approve plans through the assembly.

Sargon of Akkad Formed Empire

2334 bc

Sargon's government was considered a force theory but later on it evolved to an evolutionary system becuase Sargon's kids later became the rulers. The government of Akkad is considered a Autocracy because Sargon had most of the power. The people of Akkad had to work very hard and spent a lot of time building.

Hammurabi's Code

1792 BC - 1750 BC

Hammurabi's government of Babylon is primarily a monarchy because the king had most of the power. During this time, most decisions about leaders were based on the gods so this is considered a theory of the divine right. Hammurabi's government was a very strict government. The people had little rights and there were harsh punishments for crime. Along with the king, there were also other leaders, some who were religious officials.

Roman Republic Formed

753 B.C.

The Roman Republic was a mixed government with three branches of government. There was two heads of government that were elected from the senate. The other two branches were the Assembly and the Senate. The citizens in the republic government lots of rights and power. The Roman Republic symbolizes the social contract.

Athens's Direct Democracy

500 BC

Athens's government was the first to start a democracy. Their citizens didn't vote on leaders but instead voted on almost every law and policy that was in consideration. Although, women didn't get to vote. There were many officials in the democracy and they were chosen randomly from a group of citizens. The new democracy is mostly connected with the social contract because citizens ruled the government and a lot of rights.

Roman Empire Formed

27 BC

The Roman Empire was a monarchy that was centered around the military. The Empire was ruled by a emperor who made the majority of the decisions eventhough citizens did vote on some decisions. The Roman Empire is considered a evolutionary system because most higher officals were family members.

Feudalism Began in Europe

800

In Europe, they had their own form of government called feudalism where leaders sold nobles land in exchange for military services. This government solved lots of disputes but didn't provide public services like schools and hospitals. Because there were multiple leaders, the government represents a force theory. Citizens had little rights. There main duty was to provide for the leaders with whatever they wanted.

Rise of Absolute Monarchies

1500

In Europe, they started a new absolute monarchy. The majority of the kings were elected because they believed that god had given them a special power. This is known as the divine right. Citizens didn't have many rights in an absolute monarchy.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

After the English Civil War, england's king died along with their government. Before the king was killed, England had a divine right system. After a long time, the disfunctional government of England returned back to a republic system.

Glorious Revolution in England

1647 - 1649

The form of government England established during the glorious revolution was a constitutional monarchy which means the powers of the ruler are limited by the constitution and the laws of the country. Citizens had more rights. The government was still a divine right.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

During the American Revolution, England was still a monarchy, ruled by a king. The citizens didn't have a ton of rights and the king had a ton of power but he was still limited based on laws. The English government was still a divine right.