The Committee evaluated the condition of civil rights in the U.S. and proposed measures to Truman on how to fix and protect them
Tried, but failed, to veto the Taft-Hartly Act, which was to check the power of the growing Unions
Jackie Robinson desegregated the sport by joining the Dodgers as the first black man in the major league
Authors such as Jack Kerouac (On the Road) and Allen Ginsberg (Howl) advocated spontaneity, use of drugs, and rebellion of social standards. The Beatniks became models for the youth rebellion of the 60's.
Earl Warren was the Chief Justice during the period, which ended racial segregation and applied the Bill of Rights to the states.
The NAACP, along with Thurgood Marshall, convinced the supreme court to rule that segregation of public facilities is unconstitutional and segregation of the schools must end quickly
Rosa Parks was arrested for not moving from her seat on the bus. Soon a bus boycott began, but ended when the Supreme Court ruled that segregation laws are unconstitutional
The Act was to ensure that all blacks could exercise their right to vote.
The organization founded for Civil Rights, organizing sit-ins and freedom rides
College students started a sit-in movement after being refused service at a local Woolworth's lunch counter, inviting their on arrest
Eisenhower mandated this law to fill in the loop holes of the 1957 Act. The law punished those who tried to prevent an eligible person from voting.
It was ruled that illegally siezed evidence could not be used in court against the accused.
Prohibits Congress and the states from instituting a poll tax.
James H. Meredith became the first black student at Mississippi University. This led to a riot between racists and the US Marshals, who were sent by Kennedy to protect Meredith.
It required that state courts provide an attorney for poor defendents.
Written by Betty Friedan, it sparked a second wave of feminism by showing how unhappy many women were with being housewives.
200,000 took place in Martin Luther Kng Jr.'s demonstration, where he gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech
A Baptist Church in Alabama was bombed, killing 4 and injuring 23. Robert Chambliss was arrested as a suspect, but was never convicted.
Made segregation illegal in all public facilities and gave the federal government the right to enforce school desegregation
It required the police to inform an arrested person of his or her right to remain silent.
Congress ended literacy tests that kept blacks from voting.
Race riots erupted in black neighborhoods of large cities because of discrimination of housing. A famous one, the Watts riots, took place in Los Angeles, where over 30,000 people took part and over 200 buildings were destroyed.
Malcolm X, a black rights and self-sufficiency advocate,was murdered in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom.
The National Organization for Women was founded in 1966 to fight for women's rights. Betty Friedan was the first president of the organization.
An arrested person had the right to have a lawer present during police questioning.
Thurgood Marshall was the first African American justice on the United States supreme court.
Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
Robert F. Kennedy, a U.S. Senator and presidential nominee, was shot in the Ambassador Hotel.
Hippies gathered for three days of music in upper state New York. This was the last large gathering that reflected their culture.
The Equal Rights Amendment was passed by the Senate, which stated that equal rights under the law shall not be denied because of sex.
Policy by Truman (and Reagan, etc.) to contain communism to soviet union and not allow its westward spread
Manhatten project tests first atomic bomb
Gov saw communist conspiracies behind civil wars in Europe & Asia, led to suspicions of Communists at home
Set up CIA, DOD, NSC (National Security Council), and a peacetime draft
Sent $400 million dollars toTurkey and Greece in military aid to prevent communism from spreading there
Designed to extend containment policy on an international level with other nations
Stalin cut off US access to West Berlin
Aerial drops of resources supplied Berliners
Stalin could not shoot the planes down and eventually ended the highway blockade
Economic aid to prevent Europe communism
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Allies (US, British, French, Canadians, etc.) against communists, specifically Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact
US was only country with A-bomb until Soviets developed one
Then the US built an H-bomb and the Soviets followed
Unofficial beginning of the arms race
Came as a surprise to the US
Speed came from spies inside development teams in the US
Republican senator from Wisconsin
Charged 205 state department workers w/being Communist; rode the wave of paranoia and anticommunism to make himself powerful
-bashed democrats and the wealthy with “gloves-off” unsupported accusations to keep the attention on himself and to discredit Truman
-a senate committee finally held televised hearings on Commie infiltration in the army in 1954, and McCarthy was seen as a bully by millions; republicans and democrats censured him
“Three years later, McCarthy died a broken man.”
North Korea and (later) China vs. South Korea and the U. N.
War started b/c US was trying to stop communism from spreading to South Korea
In the strategy of the cold war, Truman’s containment policy in Korea worked (stopped communism, no world war)
Provided an excuse to expand the military, create new jet bombers, and placing more troops in overseas bases
Republicans used the war stalemate to hammer the democrats
Americans were convinced spies gave nuclear secrets to Russia
FBI traced a spy ring to Julius and Ethel Rosenburg in New York
Were executed for the crime after a controversial trial
MacArthur was a general in the Korean War (had his good moments and his incredibly stupid ones)
Called for “expanded war” (bombing/invasion of China)
His statements got him in trouble b/c they criticized Truman’s “limited war,” so he was put on trial for insubordination after MA refused to stop complaining
MA came home to public support
Main step towards long range missiles for Russia programs in the Arms race between Russia and America
Basically the first "NASA "
American pilot flew a spy plane across Russia taking pictures of nuclear test sites then got shot down and captured, but was released
Kennedy used C.I.A. agents to train Cuban rebels to stage a coup against Cuba
Wall that divided up Germany into east and west east
Erected under Communist control by Soviet Russia
Cuba got nuclear weapons from Russia which threatend America and pushed towards nuclear war
War between North and South Vietnam
US got involved in order to support containment policy
Joint resolution that the United States Congress passed in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident
Gave Johnson the right to employ military force in Southeast Asia
Tension between Russia and America got to boiling point due to actions made by both countries to support their sides of Vietnam
After JFK’s death Nixon and George Wallace campaigned for presidency
Military effort in Vietnam War, North Vietnam attack south Vietnam and America counterattacked
Policy as result because of Tet Offensive
Trained and equipped the South Vietnamese so US troops could leave
continued SALT I
reduced the manufacturing of nuclear weapons between the US and Soviet Union
Paris Peace accords
armistice agreed after several weeks of B-52 bomber attacks, the US withdrew troops and received over 500 POW's
Also promised a cease-fire and free elections, but did not end the war between the two Vietnams
Strategic Defense Initiative
proposed high-tech system of lasers and particle beams to destroy enemy missiles before reaching US territory
Critics stated the program would escalate the arms race and could be overwhelmed by the building of more missiles
Mikhail Gorbachev became the new Soviet leader
introduced two new reforms - glasnost and perestroika
openness to end political repression and move to greater political freedom
restructuring Soviet economy by introducing some free-market practices
Communist governments began falling apart
Began in Poland, 1989 with the election of Lech Walesa
Then Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania fell
Communists were forced out of East Germany after protesters tore down the Berlin wall
prodemocracy students demonstrate in Beijing, China
Communist government crushed the demonstration with tanks under the cover of night, killing hundreds