1940s - 1980s

Civil Rights

Commitee of Civil Rights

1946

first committee to investigate the status of civil rights in the nation

Baseball

1947

Jackie Robinson became the first African American baseball player

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

his court made many revolutionary decisions from a civil rights standpoint, leading to desegregation in many aspects of American society.

Brown vs Board of Ed Topeka

1954

segregated schools became illegal

Montegomery Al

1955

site of montogmery bus boycott and begining of civil rights movement in 1955

Eisenhower

1960

signed legislation to protect the right to vote

Greensboro NC

1960

Sit in at lunch counter Febuary 1st

SNCC

1960

student nonviolent coordination committee organized nonviolent protests for civil rights

Mapp vs Ohio

1961

evidence obtained in violation of 4th amendment was not admissible

Mississippi

1962

Riot in the fall against James Meridith's registration at the University of Mississippi.

March on Washington

1963

march on Washington for jobs and freedoms was one of the largest civil rights rallies in the U.S.

Gideon vs Wainwright

1963

ensured defendants in criminal cases had counsel even if they did not have the ability to pay

Alabama

1963

Birmingham bombing killed 4 Sunday school children in a Baptist church frequented by civil rights leaders.

Feminine Mystique

1963

started second wave of feminism in the U.S.

Civil Rights Act

1964 - 1965

prohibited racial discrimination, among other things, by the government and certain public places

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964

suspects have a right to counsel

24th Amendment

1964

prevents conditioning of the right to vote

Riots

1965 - 1968

like those in Harlem and Watts, showed that many members of the black community "would not quietly submit to slum life"

Assassinations

1965 - 1968

Malcolm X assassinated in 1965
MLK assassinated in 1968

Miranda v Arizona

1966

guaranteed the accused would be properly informed of their rights

NOW

1966

National Organization for Women founded in 1966

Thurgood Marshall

1967

first African American supreme court justice 1967

Woodstock

1969

defining moment of American culture, the Woodstock festival was started this year

ERA

1972

the equal rights amendment (for women) almost passed in 1972, but was not ratified at a state level

Cold War

Atomic Weapons

1945 - 1949

U.S. was only nation with A Bomb until Soviets developed one in 1949, since then until end of cold war was an arms race to build more and new weapons between the Soviets and the U.S.

Truman Doctrine

1946 - 1949

gave $400 million in military aid to Greece and Turkey to resist Communism, this policy became known as the Truman Doctrine, and would manifest itself in Containment Policy

National Security Act

1947

Centralized Military, founded CIA, All under the new DOD (replacing the Department of War), and a peacetime draft

Red Scare

1947 - 1954

fear of communism lead to a second red scare in America, sparking Rosenburg trial and McCarthysm

Marshall Plan

1948 - 1952

Gave economic aid to Europe, though no nation under the communist sphere of influence accepted. prevented communism from spreading westward.

NATO

1949 - Present

Military Alliance for security against Soviet Union, who formed the Warsaw Pact in response

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Communist Kim Il Sung started military campaign against non communist South Korea, who recieved support from U.S., pushing up to China's border until China's intervention, leading to stalemate, and a ceasefire at the 38th parallel in 1953.

First application of containment policy (besides aid) to contain communism in North Korea

McCarthysm

1950 - 1954

suspicious of communist infiltration of government, his accusation was cabable of ruining careers and lives until in 1954 he was exposed as fraudulant on TV

MacArthur's insubordination

1951

Truman cautioned MacArthur against making public statements, especially calling for bombing China (who supported NK). MacArthur didn't, and was recalled by Truman and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for insubordination

Rosenburg Trial

1951 - 1953

Controversial Trial of Rosenburgs, accused of selling nuclear secrets to Soviets, ending in their execution

Containment Policy

1952 - 1991

Truman Doctrine of Containing Communism Was High Priority after NSC - 68 was signed by Truman

Sputnik

1957

Soviets launched sputnik 1 into orbit, demonstrating their space superiority and missile cabapilities, starting the space race.

U - 2 Incident

1960

A U - 2 spyplane was shot down over Russia with photos of miltiary bases, which Eisenhower admitted was a covert operation. forced Kruschev to denounce Eisenhower, bringind diplomatic relations to a halt

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1990

Wall put up around West Berlin seperating non soviets from soviet Union

Bay of Pigs Invasion

1961

Kennedy apporved of Eisenhower's plan to remove Communist Castro's regime with trained non communist rebels, which failed miserably and lead to a diplomatic crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1962

Cuba recieved Soviet Warheads, prompting a U.S. blockade by Kennedy. For 13 days it was very close to Nuclear War, until the Soviets backed down and removed the warheads from Cuba, if the U.S. removed warheads from Turkey. They also established a hotline from D.C. to Moscow to prevent Nuclear war in the future

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

1964

Congress passed resolution allowing Johnson to use military force in Vietnam

Vietnam War

1964 - 1975

Tet Offensive

1968

military campaign by Viet Cong and North Vietnamese communists against South and U.S.

Although it was a military defeate for the Communists, it shocked the American public, and was the beginning of public shift away from support of the war

Vietnamization

1968 - 1975

Preparing South Vietnam for U.S. exit from the war

1968 Election

1968

Johnson's term over, Nixon (vice president under Eisenhower) ran against and beat Democrat Wallace

Salt II

1972 - 1979

series of talks between Soviets and U.S. over disarmment between Carter and Brehznev, was not ratified by Senate until changes were made under the direction of Senator Joe Biden

Star Wars

1983

Suggestion by Reagan to creat defensives systems using ground and space based lasers, was called Star Wars by critics

Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

enacted two new programs to appease public over economic hardships Glasnost & Perestroika

Glasnost

1985

openness to end political repression and move to greater political freedom, which would lead to large amount of input of dissatisfaction with Soviet Union

Perestroika

1989 - 1990

Collapse of Communist Soviet Union, Russia restructured its economy to introduce some new free market practices