first committee to investigate the status of civil rights in the nation
Jackie Robinson became the first African American baseball player
his court made many revolutionary decisions from a civil rights standpoint, leading to desegregation in many aspects of American society.
segregated schools became illegal
site of montogmery bus boycott and begining of civil rights movement in 1955
signed legislation to protect the right to vote
Sit in at lunch counter Febuary 1st
student nonviolent coordination committee organized nonviolent protests for civil rights
evidence obtained in violation of 4th amendment was not admissible
Riot in the fall against James Meridith's registration at the University of Mississippi.
march on Washington for jobs and freedoms was one of the largest civil rights rallies in the U.S.
ensured defendants in criminal cases had counsel even if they did not have the ability to pay
Birmingham bombing killed 4 Sunday school children in a Baptist church frequented by civil rights leaders.
started second wave of feminism in the U.S.
prohibited racial discrimination, among other things, by the government and certain public places
suspects have a right to counsel
prevents conditioning of the right to vote
like those in Harlem and Watts, showed that many members of the black community "would not quietly submit to slum life"
Malcolm X assassinated in 1965
MLK assassinated in 1968
guaranteed the accused would be properly informed of their rights
National Organization for Women founded in 1966
first African American supreme court justice 1967
defining moment of American culture, the Woodstock festival was started this year
the equal rights amendment (for women) almost passed in 1972, but was not ratified at a state level
U.S. was only nation with A Bomb until Soviets developed one in 1949, since then until end of cold war was an arms race to build more and new weapons between the Soviets and the U.S.
gave $400 million in military aid to Greece and Turkey to resist Communism, this policy became known as the Truman Doctrine, and would manifest itself in Containment Policy
Centralized Military, founded CIA, All under the new DOD (replacing the Department of War), and a peacetime draft
fear of communism lead to a second red scare in America, sparking Rosenburg trial and McCarthysm
Gave economic aid to Europe, though no nation under the communist sphere of influence accepted. prevented communism from spreading westward.
Military Alliance for security against Soviet Union, who formed the Warsaw Pact in response
Communist Kim Il Sung started military campaign against non communist South Korea, who recieved support from U.S., pushing up to China's border until China's intervention, leading to stalemate, and a ceasefire at the 38th parallel in 1953.
First application of containment policy (besides aid) to contain communism in North Korea
suspicious of communist infiltration of government, his accusation was cabable of ruining careers and lives until in 1954 he was exposed as fraudulant on TV
Truman cautioned MacArthur against making public statements, especially calling for bombing China (who supported NK). MacArthur didn't, and was recalled by Truman and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for insubordination
Controversial Trial of Rosenburgs, accused of selling nuclear secrets to Soviets, ending in their execution
Truman Doctrine of Containing Communism Was High Priority after NSC - 68 was signed by Truman
Soviets launched sputnik 1 into orbit, demonstrating their space superiority and missile cabapilities, starting the space race.
A U - 2 spyplane was shot down over Russia with photos of miltiary bases, which Eisenhower admitted was a covert operation. forced Kruschev to denounce Eisenhower, bringind diplomatic relations to a halt
Wall put up around West Berlin seperating non soviets from soviet Union
Kennedy apporved of Eisenhower's plan to remove Communist Castro's regime with trained non communist rebels, which failed miserably and lead to a diplomatic crisis
Cuba recieved Soviet Warheads, prompting a U.S. blockade by Kennedy. For 13 days it was very close to Nuclear War, until the Soviets backed down and removed the warheads from Cuba, if the U.S. removed warheads from Turkey. They also established a hotline from D.C. to Moscow to prevent Nuclear war in the future
Congress passed resolution allowing Johnson to use military force in Vietnam
military campaign by Viet Cong and North Vietnamese communists against South and U.S.
Although it was a military defeate for the Communists, it shocked the American public, and was the beginning of public shift away from support of the war
Preparing South Vietnam for U.S. exit from the war
Johnson's term over, Nixon (vice president under Eisenhower) ran against and beat Democrat Wallace
series of talks between Soviets and U.S. over disarmment between Carter and Brehznev, was not ratified by Senate until changes were made under the direction of Senator Joe Biden
Suggestion by Reagan to creat defensives systems using ground and space based lasers, was called Star Wars by critics
enacted two new programs to appease public over economic hardships Glasnost & Perestroika
openness to end political repression and move to greater political freedom, which would lead to large amount of input of dissatisfaction with Soviet Union
Collapse of Communist Soviet Union, Russia restructured its economy to introduce some new free market practices