Post WWII

Civil Rights

Committee of Civil Rights

1946

-president Truman used executive powers to establish
- to challenge racial discrimination
-to investigate state of civil rights in country and to strengrhen and protect them

Baseball

1947

-Robinson became first African American major league baseball player
-broke color barrier for baseball

Truman

1947

-first president to use powers to challenge racial discrimination
-strengthened civil rights divison in Justice Department
-1948 ended racial discrimination in federal government and armed forces
-1947 congress passed probusiness Taft-Hartley Act; Truman vetoed but congress overrode

Beatniks

1950 - 1960

-group of rebellious writers and intellectuals
-led by Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg
-advocated spontaneity, use of drugs and rebellion against social standards

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

-Supreme Court's chief justice was Earl Warren
-brought an end to racial segregarion
-incorporated bill of rights
-ended sanctioned volntary prayer in public schools

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

1954

-Argued segregation of black children in public schools was unconstitutional because violated Fourteenth Amendment
-Supreme Court agreed and ruled separate facitlities unconstitutional and segregationin schools should end

Montgomery, AL

1955
  • Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of a bus to section reserved for African Americans -her arrest started a massive African American protest -boycott against riding city buses -Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. soom emerged as leader of nonviolent movement -1956 Supreme court ruled that segregation laws were unconstitutional

Eisenhower

1957

-Eisenhower Doctrine
-U.S. pledged economic and military aid to any middle eastern country threatened by communism

Greensboro, NC

1957

-sit ins
-eventually lead to Woolworth's department store changing racial policy

Eisenhower

1960

-farewell address spoke against negative impact of Cold War

SNCC

1960 - 1970

-Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
-to call attention the injustice of segregated facilites students would deliberately sit in restricted areas and refuse to leave which invited arrest
-SNCC forned to keep movement organized
-African Americans used sit in tactic to integrate restaurants, hotels, buildings, libraries, pools and transportation

Mapp v. Ohio

1961

-ruled that illegally seized evidence cannot be used in court against the accused
-Warren Court

Mississippi

1962

-James Meredith attempted to enroll in University of Mississippi
-federal court guaranteed his righ to attend
-Kennedy sent federl marchals and troops to control mob violence and protect Meredith's right

Alabama

1963
  • Bringham Campaign -strategic organization by SCLC -a series of sit ins and march ins to gain media attention -ran out of adult volunteers, so trained college, high school students, and kids -Police of Bringham started to use force against the peacefull protests -other protestors would attack the police -public places became more open to blacks

March on Washington

1963

-August 1963 King led one of largest and successful demonstrations
-200,000 balcks and whites took part
-in support of civil rights bill
- "I Have a Dream" speech
-appealed for the end of racial prejudice

Gideon v. Wainwright

1963

-required that state courts provide services of an attorney for poor defendants

Feminine Mystique

1963

-written by Betty Friedan
-challenged the image of household wife
-confronts the role of stay at home mom
-credited of greatly influencing the second wave of feminism
-stated that women are victims of a fake belief system and forced to find meaning through kids and husband
-encouraged middle class women to seek fullfillment in proffesional careers

24th Amendment

1964

-ended mandatory poll taxes which prevented African Americans from voting

Civil Rights Act

1964

-prohibits discrimination because of race, color, religion, sex or national origin
-ended the application of "Jim Crow" laws
-expanded by congress to strengthern the enforcement of these civil rights
-House of Represenatives past final version of the acts on February 10, 1964

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964 - June 22 1964

-government’s obligation to maintain respect and uphold the legal rights of all American citizens if arrested
-Escobedo arrested for muder interrogated for 14 hours withour legal help
-claimed the department unconstitutionally questioned him withour access to legal consoltent
-supreme court ruled in favor of Escobedo and that he was not allowed his rights given to him in the fifth and sixth amendments

Assassination

1965

-Malcolm X assassinated while giving a speech in Audubon Ballroom
-Malcolm X was a controversial black leader

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965

-prevented voting discrimination based on race, color, or membership
-outlaws discriminatory voting practices
-prevents states from making qualifications for votiing

Riots

1965 - 1968

-Watts Riots August 11 to 17 in 1965 ; most severe riot in that section untill Los Angeles riots; started with police using violence to subdue an African American; people crowded around and lasted for days; lot of reinforcements; martial law enforced curfew; riots against oppresive treatments of blacks
-the day after Martin Luther King Jr. died many riots broke out where there were a bunch of robberiers; Illionois National Gaurd Troops; fire department; and fire department brought out against riots

NOW

1966

-National Organization for Women
-Freidan helpedb form
adopted activist tactics of other movements
-to secure equal treatment for women

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

-extended ruling in Escobedo to include right to lawyer being present during questioning

Thurgood Marshall

1967

-Associate Justice of Supreme Court
-First African American Justice and was appointed by President Johnson

Assassinations

1968

-Martain Luther King Jr.'s assassination
-efforts to use peaceful marches in urban centers of North had little success
-he roke with President Johnson over Vietnam War because war draining money from social programs
-shot and killed by white man in April 1968
-massive riots in168 cities leaving at least 46 people dead
-revealed anger and frustration among african americans

Woodstock

1969

-political protests of New Left went with conterculture that expressed by "hippies" and "flower children"
-folk music gave voice to youger generation's protest, while rock and roll for counterculture
-experiments with halllucinogenic drugs made young people addicts and destroyed their lives
-one last fling at Woodstuck Music Festival in New York
-reflected the zenith of counterculture

ERA

1972
  • Equal Rights Amendment -congress passed -proposed constiutional amendment that stated that equality of rights can't be taken away from someone from U.S. or state based on sex -missed acceptance by required 38 states because of growing conservative reaction to radical feminists

Cold War

UN-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

1938

was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It was created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty and subversive activities on the part of private citizens, public employees, and those organizations suspected of having Communist ties

atomic weapons

1945

mass destruction bombs that were created after wwll. we used them to scare off russia and boss them around. but used against japan

containment policy

1946

when america wanted to contain communism from spreading from russia to anywhere else

second red scare

1947 - 1954

people went after people who they thought were for communism

National Security act

1947

which realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War Il

truman doctrine

1947

truman was a peace treaty with greece and turkey and said they would support them with military and economic aid to prevent them falling to communism to the soviet union

marshal plan

1948

in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism.

Berlin Airlift

1948

when soviet union blockaded americas allied berlin and so america had to air lift aid in to the city and soviet union couldnt do anything about it without starting a war.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization(nato)

1949

The organization constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.

Rosenberg Case

1950

the Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested Julius Rosenberg (1918–53), an electrical engineer who had worked (1940–45) for the U.S. army signal corps, and his wife Ethel (1916–53); they were indicted for conspiracy to transmit classified military information to the Soviet Union. they weere trialled and told guilty.

joseph mccarthy

1950

anti communist crusader. he got elected govener and told everyone that alot of people were communist and got them scared. he said all democrats were. and some generals

Goal: Contain Communism in North Korea

1950

when america fought against north korea to stop them from becomming communist and so they won but then china stepped in and pushed them back to south korea. so south korea became democracy and north korea became communist.

Truman Vs. MacArthur

1951

when macaurthur fired on china when truman ordered him not to and that started the enter of china into the war and made them loose all there territory.

sputnik

1955

was the first artificial Earth satellite. it was made by russia and made the u.s rush to make the next best space material.

U-2 Incidnet

May 1 1960

-2 weeks before "Spirit of Camp David" planned meeting in Paris russians shot down a US spy plane over Soviet Union
-exposed secret US tactic for gaining information where US decided to conduct regular spy flights over Soviet territory to find out about enemy's missile program
-Eisenhower took full responsibility and Khrushchev denounced him and called off Paris summit

Bay of Pigs Invasion

1961

-Kennedy gave approval to CIA scheme planned under Eisenhower administration to use Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro in Cuba
-CIA trained force of Cubans landed at Bay of Pigs but failed to set off uprising
-anti-Castro cubans trapped ad had to surrender after Kennedy refused to use US forces to save them
-Castro used invasion to get aid from Soviet Union and strengthen his power

Berlin Wall

1961 - 1989

-Kennedy agreed to meet soviet premier Khrushchev in Vienna
-Khrushchev threaten president by renewing Soviet demands US troops be pulled out of Berlin; Kennedy refused
-East Germans supported by Soviet built a wall around West Berlin to stop eastern germans from fleeing into Berlin
-1963 president traveled to West Berlin to assure residents still had US support
-Berlin wall stood until torn down by East Germans in 1989

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1962

-US planes found that Russians building underground sites in Cuba for launching of offensive missiles that could reach the Us
-Kennedy announced that he was setting up naval blockade of Cuba until weapons removed
-Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles from cuba in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade Cuba
-afterward telecommunications was established between Washington and Moscow
-1963 soviet union, us and many other nations signed Nuclear Test Ban Treaty to end testing of nuclear weapons in atmosphere

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

1964

-Johnson used a naval incident in Gulf of Tonkin where north Vietnamese gunboats had fired on Us warships to gain congressional authorization for Us forces going into combat
-the Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave president as commander in chief a blank check to take necessary measures to protect US measures in Vietnam

Escalation of Vietnam War

1965 - 1967

-president's foreign policy advisers recommended expanding operations in Vietnam to save Saigon government
-Johnson authorized Operation Rolling Thunder a prolonged air attack using b52 bomber planes against North Vietnam
-in April first use of combat troops and by end of 1965 more than 184000 troops
-American generals used search and destroy tactic which alienated the peasants
-by end 0f 1967 Us had over 48500 troops in Vietnam

1968 Election

1968

-democrats met in Chicago for their party convention and Hubert Humphrey had enough delegates to win nomination, but antiwar demonstrators wanted Richard Daley
-Hubert Humphrey won democrat nomination
-Governor George Wallace of Alabama influenced federal desegregation, antiwar protests, and race riots and ran for president as self-nominated candidate of American independent party wanting to win enough votes to throw election into the house
-Nixon was favorite of republican party regulars and easily secured his nomination at Republican convention; his running mate was Governor Agnew of Maryland
-Nixon defeated Humphrey by very close popular and took a majority of electoral vote

Tet Offensive

January 1968

-on the Vietnam Lunar New Year the Vietcong launched an all out surprise attack on almost all provincial capital and American base in south Vietnam
-US military counterattacked and recovered the lost cities
-the destruction viewed on TVs in America appeared as a set back on Johnson's Vietnam policy
-for Vietcong and North Vietnamese it was a tremendous political victory because it demoralized American public

Vietnamization

1969 - 1972

-Nixon announced he would gradually draw US troops from Vietnam and give South Vietnamese the money, the weapons, and the training that they needed to take over the war
-Us troops in south Vietnam went from 540000 in 1969 to 30000 in 1972
-president proclaimed the Nixon doctrine declaring that in future Asian allies would receive US support but without extensive use of Us ground forces

SALT 2

November 1969 - 1979

The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
U.S. and soviet union met to reduce weapons of mass destruction

End of Vietnam War

1972 - 1973

-Nixon and Kissinger conducted secret meetings with North Vietnam's foreign minister Le Duc Tho
-when North Vietnam failed to compromise Nixon ordered massive bombing of North Vietnam
-North Vietnamese agreed to an armistice
-the Paris Accords of January 1973 stated that the US would withdraw last of its troops and get back over 500 prisoners of war, and called for a cease fire and free elections but didn't end the war between north and south Vietnam
-58,000 Americans died and $118 billion spent on war began inflationary cycle in US economy

Star Wars

March 23, 1983 - 1987

a project that ronald regan set up.
missle defense system
not possible with tech. back then

Gorbachev

1988 - 1991

soviet union president
started reform movements

perestroika

1989

a reform of the communist party. meaning “reconstruction”

glasnost

1989

a policy in the soviet union that said the government needed to be more transparent

Tiananmen Square protests

1989

riot in china against the goverment. china used the army to put down the riots.