Post World War II

Civil Rights

Truman

1946 - 1947

. Created the Committee of Civil Rights
. Issued the Truman Doctrine - Granted economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey to help those countries resist Communism

Committee of Civil Rights

12/05/1946 - 12/05/1947

Its purpose was to investigate the status of civil rights in the United States and propose measures to strengthen and protect the civil rights of American citizens.

Baseball

1947 - 1948

. Jackie Robinson was the first African-American to play baseball
. First televised World Series

Beatniks

1950 - 01/01/1965

A person who stressed artistic self-expression and the rejection of the mores of conventional society in the 1950s and 1960s

Warren Earl Court

1953 - 1969

A period of time when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice for the Supreme Court
The Warren Court expanded civil rights, civil liberties, judicial power, and the federal power in dramatic ways. The Court ended segregation, applying the Bill of Rights to all states, and ending prayer in schools across America

Brown v. Board of Education Topeka

12/08/1953 - 05/17/1954

.Declared that the the permissive or mandatory segregation that existed in 21 states is unconstitutional.

Montgomery, Alabama

1955 - 1956

. Sparked by Rosa Parks demanding to give up her seat to a white man on a bus; she was arrested and jailed
. A 13-month mass protest that ended with the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that segregation on public buses is unconstitutional.

Greensboro, NC in 1957

1957 - 1958

Four African-Americans sat down in Wool worth's lunch store but were not served due to their race
Multiple group of African-Americans came to the store to sit down and protest, and the sit-in protests began.

Eisenhower in 1957

1957 - 1958

The Civil Rights Act of 1957, it aimed to ensure that all African Americans could exercise their right to vote.
The Eisenhower Doctrine said that any country could request economic assistance from the U.S. if it was being threatened by another state.

Eisenhower in 1960

1960 - 1961

The U-2 Incident - the Soviet Union shot down an American U-2 spy plane canvassing Soviet territory in 1960
John F. Kennedy elected as president

SNCC

1960 - 1966

A leading force in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee founded by young people who had emerged as leaders Greensboro Sit-In protests

Mapp v. Ohio

03/29/1961 - 06/19/1961

A revolutionary court case which decided that items obtained in violation of the 4th amendment would not count as evidence by state court prosecutions

Mississippi in 1962

1962 - 1963

A riot fought between segregationist civilians and federal and state forces due to the forced enrollment of black student James Meredith at the University of Mississippi (known affectionately as Ole Miss)

24th Amendment

08/27/1962 - Present

The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any election for President or Vice President shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Gideon v. Wainwright

01/15/1963 - 03/18/1963

Supreme Court ruled that state courts are required t to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to to pay their own attorneys

Feminine Mystique

02/19/1963 - 1964

A nonfiction book by Betty Friedan published in 1963.
Credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States

Alabama in 1963

04/02/1963 - 09/25/1963

A campaign ran during the spring of 1963 that eventually pressured the municipal government to change the city's discrimination laws.
Marked by numerous boycotts, sit ins, water jet hoses used on blacks, and ended in the culmination of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church Bombing by KKK member resulting in the deaths of four young African-american girls

March on Washington

08/28/1963 - 08/29/1963

A large political rally which took place in Washington D.C.
Called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony during the march.
It's influence would help lead to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965

Escobedo v. Illinois

04/29/1964 - 06/22/1964

Decided that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations

Civil Rights Act of 1964

06/02/1964 - 1965

A piece of legislation in the United States which outlawed forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women
It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and facilities that served the general public

Assassination of Malcolm X

02/21/1965 - 02/22/1965

Successful assassination attempt of controversial civil rights activist Malcolm X

Civil Rights Act of 1965

03/17/1965 - 08/06/1965

Also called the Voting Rights Act
Outlawed the voting practices which discriminated certain races or sexes. Established federal oversight of election administration

Riots

08/11/1965 - 1968

Predominantly race riots between African-Americans and discriminators
Major ones include the Watts Riot, The Detroit Riots, the Baltimore Riots, and the Long Hot Summer of 1957 which saw 159 race riots erupting across the U.S.

Miranda v. Arizona

02/28/1966 - 06/13/1966

Requires law enforcement officials to advise a suspect interrogated in custody of his rights to remain silent and to obtain an attorney - "Miranda Rights"

National Organization for Women (NOW)

06/30/1966 - Present

The mission statement is listed as "To take action to bring women into full participation in the mainstream of American society now, exercising all privileges and responsibilities thereof in truly equal partnership with men."
NOW stands against all oppression in any form such as sexism, racism, or homphobia

Thurgood Marshall

10/02/1967 - 10/01/1991

An Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court
Recognized as the first African-American justice to serve on the Supreme Court in the United States

Assassinations in 1968

04/04/1968 - 06/06/1968

Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on April 4th, he was the leading man of the Civil Rights Movements of the 50s and 60s; his death sparked outrage riots

Robert F. Kennedy, the younger brother of John F. Kennedy, was assassinated on June 6th due to his support of Israel in the Six-Day War of June 1967

Woodstock

08/15/1969 - 08/18/1969

A 3 day festival which is remembered as an expression of a generation and a message of peace, love, music, and cultural expression.

Cold War

UN-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

1938 - 1975

A committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, investigated allegations of communist activity in the U.S. during the early years of the Cold War.
Its controversial tactics contributed to the fear, distrust and repression that existed during the anticommunist hysteria of the 1950s

Atomic Weapons

1945 - 1964

The United States, Britain, Germany and the U.S.S.R. were all engaged in scientific research to develop the atomic bomb

The United States exploded its bomb 1945, The Soviet Union successfully exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949, the United Kingdom in 1952, France in 1960 and the People's Republic of China in 1964.

Truman Doctrine

March 12 1947 - 1952

U.S. President Harry Truman stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent Soviet influence from taking over

National Security Act

July 26, 1947 - 1949

An act which realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II

Marshall Plan

April 1948 - 1952

An American program which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism

Berlin Airlift

June 21, 1948 - May 12, 1949

The Soviet Union placed a blockade on West Germany, banning and blocking all supplies from reaching there.
The U.S. responded by flying planes over and dropping in supplies and food to the civilians

NATO

April 4, 1949 - Present

North Atlantic Treaty Organization
An organization of American and European countries founded for three principles: deterring Soviet expansionism, forbidding the revival of militarism in Europe through a North American presence on the continent, and encouraging European political integration

Joseph McCarthy

1950 - 1954

An American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator McCarthy fueled fears of widespread Communist rumors for making claims of Soviet spies hiding in the U.S.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

A civil war between North and South Korea, but the conflict soon became international when the United States joined to support South Korea and China entered to aid North Korea.
Korea became divided as the war ended with militarized North Korea and U.S. led South Korea

Truman vs. MacArthur

1951 - 1952

President Harry S. Truman relieved General Douglas MacArthur of command of the U.S. forces in Korea which set off a brief uproar among the American public

Rosenberg Case

March 1951 - 1952

Federal Bureau of Investigation arrested Julius Rosenberg r who had worked for the U.S. army signal corps, and his wife Ethel for conspiracy to transmit classified military information to the Soviet Union.
The Rosenbergs were found guilty and received the death sentence

Vietnam War

November 1 1955 - April 30 1975

The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia and involved the U.S. from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975

U-2 Incident

May 1, 1960

CIA pilot Francis Gary Powers had been on a top secret mission: to over fly and photograph denied territory from his U2 spy plane deep inside Russia

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 17 1961 - April 19 1961

The CIA had used obsolete World War II B-26 bombers, and painted them to look like Cuban air force planes. The bombers missed many of their targets and left most of Castro’s air force intact. As news broke of the attack, photos of the repainted U.S. planes became public and revealed American support for the invasion. President Kennedy cancelled a second air strike.

Berlin Wall

August 13 1961 - October 3 1990

Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14 1962 - October 28 1962

After many long and difficult meetings, Kennedy decided to place a naval blockade, or a ring of ships, around Cuba. The aim of this “quarantine,” as he called it, was to prevent the Soviets from bringing in more military supplies. He demanded the removal of the missiles already there and the destruction of the sites. On October 22, President Kennedy spoke to the nation about the crisis in a televised address.

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

August 7 1964

a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

Escalation

1965 - 1966

A military stance which gradually increased U.S. troops in the U.S.

Tet Offensive

January 30 1968 - September 23 1968

a military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnam against South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies

Vietnamization

1975 - 1976

The term used to describe the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam

Salt II

1979 - 1980

Treaty between the United States and Soviet Union, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

Star Wars

1983 - 1984

On March 23, 1983, President Reagan proposed the creation of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), an ambitious project that would construct a space-based anti-missile system that would protect the U.S. against a Soviet Attack

Mikhail Gorbachev

1988 - 1991

Served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the first president of the Soviet Union from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991

Glasnost

1989 - 1990

a policy enacted by Gorbachev in the soviet union that said the government needed to be more transparent and cooperative

Perestroika

1989 - 1990

a reform bill by Gorbachev of the communist party which led to reforms in the Soviet Union

Tianemen Square Protests

1989 - 1990

Riot in china against the government, China used the army to put down the riots and killed protesters

East Europe Revolution

1990 - 1991

The 1989 revolutionary wave swept across Central and Eastern Europe peacefully overthrew all the Soviet-style communist states: East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, Romania was the only Eastern-bloc country to topple its communist regime violently and execute its head of state.