Post World War II

Civil Rights

15th Amendment

1870

African American men get the right to vote.

Committee of Civil Rights

1946

Instructed to investigate the status of the civil rights in the country and propose measure to strengthen and protect them. Terms of reference: To examine the condition of civil rights in the U.S., the produce a written report of their findings, and to submit recommendations on improving civil rghts in the u.s.

Baseball

1947

Jackie Robinson probed that black men could complete and be successful with white men in sports.

Truman

1947

Integration of military

Beatniks

1950 - 1960

Beatnik was a media stereotype of the 1950s to mid 1960s that displayed the more superficial aspects of the Beat Generation literary movement of the 1950s and violent film images, along with a cartoonish depiction of the real-life people and the spiritual quest in Jack Kerouac's autobiographical fiction.

Brown vs Board of Ed.

1954

a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896 which allowed state-sponsored segregation.

Montgomery, Alabama

1955

Rosa Parks refused to get off the bus.

Eisenhower

1957

The Civil Rights Act of 1957 was introduced in Eisenhower’s presidency and was the act that kick-started the civil rights legislative program that was to include the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.

SNCC

1960 - 1970

One of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. SNCC legacy is the destruction of the psychological shackles which had kept black southerners in physical and mental peonage.

Eisenhower

1960

Soviet Union shot down an American U-2 spy plane canvassing Soviet territory in 1960. In the wake of this incident, there appeared to be little hope for accommodation. At that point, talks ceased, and the Soviet premier appeared willing to wait for the U.S. presidential elections to take place so he could begin anew with the incoming administration.
However, the first negotiations between the new U.S. President and Khrushchev did not result in a resolution.

Greensboro, NC

1960

In this city, on February 1st, 1960, four African American college students from North Carolina A+T College (an all-black college) went to get served in an all-white restaurant at Woolworth’s. The shop was open to all customers regardless of color, but the restaurant was for whites only. They were not heroes to all blacks but to heroes at the college.

Mapp vs Ohio

1961

The Warren Court left a legacy of judicial activism in the area of civil rights law as well as in the area of civil liberties—specifically, the rights of the accused as addressed in Amendments 4 through 8.

MIssissippi

1962

Ole Miss riot of 1962: fought between Southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black student James Meredith at the University of Mississippi.

Alabama

1963

The Birmingham Bombing: 4 black girls were killed by a bomb while they were attending Sunday school at the 16th Street Baptist Church

Gideon vs Wainwright

1963

Supreme Court ruled that state courts are required under the 14th amendment to provide counsel for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys.

Feminine Mystique

1963

Nonfiction book by Betty Friedan first published in 1963. It is widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States.

March of Washington

August 28, 1963

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963. Attended by some 250,000 people, it was the largest demonstration ever seen in the nation’s capital.

Civil Rights Act

1964

Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women.2 It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public (“public accommodations”).

Escobedo vs Illinois

1964

After a year is was decided by the court that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.

24th amendment

1964

Prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.

Riot

1965 - 1968

Watt's riot, city riots

Civil Rights of 1965

1965

National legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.

Assassination

1965

Malcolm X assassinated

13th Amendment

1965

Freed the slaves

National Organization of Women

1966

Was founded in 1966 and the main goal was to try and get equal rights for women

Miranda vs Arizona

1966

Court said that whatever a defendant says can not be used as evidence if he or she is not read their Miranda Rights. This case developed the Miranda rights.

Thurgood Marshal

1967

First African American justice to be apart of the Supreme Court

14th Amendment

1968

Disenfranchisement of former confederate leader, the debt of the south and had to paid of by the south.

Woodstock

1969

A large music festival with all the hippies about equality.

ERA

1972

A proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal rights for women that failed to be passed.

Assassinations

1986

Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated

Cold War

Atomic Weapons

1945 - 1952

USA and USSR create atomic weaponry (compete for equal amounts so neither will drop "the bomb")

UN-American Activities Committee

1947 - 1951

a congressional committee that investigated commmunist influence inside and outside the us gov. after wwii

Second Red Scare

1947 - 1957

Post World War II resurgence of Anti-communist sentiment that influenced governmental and personal actions.

National Security Act

1947

Created the Department of Defense, National Security Council, and Central Intelligence Agency.

Containment Policy

1947

US policy to stop expansion of Soviet Union and Communism.

Truman Doctrine

1947

President Truman's promise to help nations struggling against communist movements.

Marshall Plan

1948

A plan that the U.S. provided aid to all European nations that needed it.

Berlin Airlift

1948

Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city.

NATO

1949

an international organization created by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security.

Rosenberg Case

1951

Involved Julius and Ethel Rosenberg who were American communists. They were executed for passing nuclear weapons secrets to the USSR.

Joseph Mccarthy

1957

United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists.

Sputnik

1957

The first artificial satellite to orbit Earth, launched by the Soviets.

U-2 Incident

1960

the downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union.

Berlin Wall

1961

a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany to keep citizens from escaping to the West.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

1961

failed invasion of Cuba when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba

escalation

1964 - 1975

Policy of increasing military involvement in Vietnam.

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

1964

resolution that allowed president johnson to fight in vietnam

1968 Election

1968 - 1969

Nixon routed other two candidates.

Tet Offensive

1968

Attack by Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces throughout South Vietnam; moral defeat for US forces.

Vietnamization

1971 - 1973

Nixon's policy to train Southern Vietnamese soldiers to substitute for US troops.

Salt II

1972 - 1979

Talk between allied nations to control production of nuclear weapons.

End of War

1973 - 1974

Ceasefire called after allied troops and US soldiers were overwhelmed, unorganized, and in distress.

Eastern Europe

1973 - 1991

War in Vietnam and Korea, splits among countries with the presentation of the Warsaw Pact by USSR and US NATO.

Star Wars

1983

Use of space-based means by Russia to operate missile-defense systems from beyond the atmosphere.

Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

Only Russian president born in USSR era, assisted in ending Cold War.

Glasnost

1986 - 1991

Policy to increase openness and overall transparency of USSR institutions and governments.

Perestroika

1986 - 1991

Russian word for reformation, believed to be the main cause for the dissolving of the USSR.

Tiananmen Square

April 15, 1989 - June 4, 1989

Large protest in Beijing that resulted in huge riot and split among Chinese political groups and cabinets.