Post World War II

Civil Rights

Committee of Civil Rights

1946

Instructed to investigate the status of civil rights in the country and propose measures to strengthen and protect them. terms of reference: to examine the condition of civil rights in the United States, to produce a written report of their findings, and to submit recommendations on improving civil rights in the U.S.

Truman Doctrine

1947

Stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.

Integration of Military

1-1-47 - 1/2/47

Truman

Baseball

1947

Jacki Robinson

Beatniks

1950

Earl Warren Court

1953 - 1969

Warren Court made series of decisions that had a profound effect on the criminal justice system, political system of the states, and the definition of individual rights

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

1954

Supreme Court in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional.

Montgomery Bus Boycott

1955

Blacks boycotted the city buses until they could sit anywhere they wanted, instead of being relegated to the black when a white boarded.

Greensboro Sit-Ins

1957

series of nonviolent protests which led to the Woolworth's department store chain reversing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern U.S.

Eisenhower

1957

signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957

Eisenhower

1960

signed the Civil Rights Act of 1960

SNCC

1960

(Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) A group of black college students from North Carolina A&T University refused to leave a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina where they had been denied service. his sparked a wave of other sit-ins in college towns across the South.

Mapp v. Ohio

1961

U.S. Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the 4th Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts.

Ole Miss Riot

1962

Fought between Southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces as a result of the forced enrollment of black sudents at the University of Mississippi.

March on Washington

1963

political rally for human rights. Called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. Took place in Washington, D.C.

Gideon v. Wainwright

1963

The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the 14th Amendment to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford to pay their own attorneys, extending the identical requirement made on the federal government under the 6th Amendment.

Feminine Mystique

1963

nonfiction book by Betty Friedan. Widely credited with sparking the beginning of second-wave feminism in the U.S.

Birmingham Bombing

1963

Civil Rights Act -1964

1964

Outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public.

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964

Held that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the 6th Amendment.

24th Amendment

1964

prohibited states from requiring payment of a poll tax as a condition for voting in federal elections

Civil Rights Act of 1965

1965

(Voting Rights Act) Outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the U.S.

Riots

1965 - 1968

many people died. very violent.

Malcom X Assassination

1965

Malcom X was shot and killed by assassins identified as Black Muslims as he was about to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem.

National Organization for Women

1966

(NOW) organization founded in 1966 and which has a membership of 500,000 contributing members set up for the advancement of women.

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

extended the ruling in Escobedo to include the right to a lawyer being present during questioning by the police

Thurgood Marshall

1967

Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice

Second Kennedy Assassination

June 5, 1968

after Kennedy won a major victory in California's primary he was shot and killed by a young Arab nationalist who opposed Kennedy's support for Israel

Woodstock Music Festival

1969

thousands of "hippies" reflected the zenith of the counterculture.
led to it's demise in the 1960s.

Equal Rights Amendment

1972

(ERA) proposed constitutional amendment that said equality of rights under law shouldn't be denied or abridged by the U.S. or any state on account of sex.

Cold War

HUAC

1939

Established to seek out Nazis. Investigated government officials but also looked for Communist influence in such organizations as the Boy Scouts and in the Hollywood film industry.

Truman Doctrine

1947

Stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere.

Containment Policy

1947

prevented the spread of communism.

National Security Act

1947

provided a centralized Department of Defense to coordinate the operations of the Army, Navy, and Air Force; creation of the National Security Council (NSC), and created the Central Intelligence Agency which employed spies to gather info. on foreign governments.

Berlin Airlift

1948

sent American plans to Berlin because of blockade

Marshall Plan

1948

prevented spread of Soviet Communism.

NATO

1949

(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Truman recommended that the U.S joined a military defense to pact to protect Western Europe.

Atomic Weapons

1949

Korean War

1950 - 1953

North Korea invaded South Korea. U.S. w/ U.N. helps S. Korea vs. N. Korea a & China

Joseph McCarthy

1950

Republican senator from Wisconsin, used the growing concern over communism in his reelection campaign.

Rosenberg case

1951

When the Soviets tested their atomic bomb, many Americans were convinced that spies had helped them to steal the technology from the U.S.

Truman Vs. MacArthur

1951

MacArthur managed to stabilize the fighting near the 38th parallel.

U-2 Incident

1955

Russians shot down a high-altitude U.S. spy plane -the U-2- over the Soviet Union. The incident exposed a secret U.S. tactic for gaining information. The U.S. had decided to conduct regular spy flights over Soviet territory.

Sputnik

1957

the Soviet Union shocked the U.S and surprised the world by launching the first satellites, Sputnik I and Sputnik II, into orbit around the earth.

Bay of Pigs invasion

1961

Cubans landed at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba but failed to set off a general uprising as planned. They had no choice but to surrender after Kennedy rejected the idea of using U.S. forces to save them.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

U.S. reconnaissance planes discovered that the Russians were building underground sites in Cuba for the launching of missiles that could reach the U.S. in minutes.

Berlin Wall

1963

President traveled to West Berlin to assure its residents of continuing U.S. support. The Berlin Wall stood as a gloomy symbol of the Cold War.

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

1964

gave the president a blank check to take "all necessary measures" to protect U.S. interests in Vietnam.

Escalation

1965 - 1968