Atlantic Communities III

World War I

Federal Reserve Act

1913

Helped regulate and stabilize banking in the US especially through $ crisis of WWI

Clayton Anit-Trust Act

1914

Ext. Sherman Anti-Trust Act, allowed labor unions and agricultural organizations

Federal Trade Commission

1914

A federal agency created in 1914. its purpose is to promote free and fair competition in interstate commerce; this includes preventing false and misleading advertising.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Central Powers:
Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by Turkey and Bulgaria
Allied Powers:
Great Britain, Russia, and France, later joined by Italy, Japan and the United States

Lusitania

1915

British boat torpedoed by U-boats. Angered US

Zimmerman Telegram

1917

German note to Mexico proposing alliance against US. Intercepted by US, causing some of them to want to enter the war

Germany and Ally Armistice

1918

2nd Battle of the Marne

1918

Fought by river in France

League of Nations

1919

An association of nations to preserve peace and resolve international disputes proposed in Wilson's Fourteen Points.

Washington Naval Conference

1919 - 1922

World leaders agreed to limit construction of warships

Paris Peace Conference

1919

Peace of Versailles

World War II

Mussolini in power

1922 - 1943

Immigration Act of 1924

1924

Established the Quota System:
Limited the number of immigrants each year. Formalized the exclusive definition of “whiteness” (Northern and Western Europeans seen as “ideal” material for American citizenship)

Stalin in power

1924 - 1953

in Russia

5-Year Plan

1928 - 1933

Stalin's plans to build heavy industry, improve transportation, and increase farm output.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

1928

War is illegal

The Great Depression

1929 - 1945

The period of economic strife following the stock market crash on Black Tuesday.

Japan invades Manchuria

1931

Japan claimed provocation and attacked China, seizing this coveted province. This was the beginning of Japanese imperialism and Asian dominance. The League of Nations wanted to intervene but was hesitant because they couldn't rely on US support. Congress took an isolationist view and refused to get involved.

The New Deals

1933 - 1935

-Huge number of small bills passed
-Short term
-Focused on recovery of business and banks, for example the bank holiday and FDIC

Hitler in power

1933 - 1945

Invasion of Ethiopia

1935

By Mussolini

Neutrality Acts

1935 - 1939
  1. 1935: No arms, no money
  2. 1936: Applies to civil wars also 2.5 1937: Strengthens previous acts
  3. 1939: CASH & CARRY

Social Security

1935
  1. set up pensions for older people
  2. set up unemployment insurance
  3. gave states money to support dependent children of people with disabilities. FDR did this, suppose to b temporary, not guaranteed to be there.

Congress of Industrial Organizations

1935

A federation of North American labor unions, organized largely by industry rather than craft.

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

Germany and Russia supply the country arms so that they're tested before the next war (WWII)

Munich Conference

1938

Representatives from Britain, France, Italy, and Germany, at which Britain and France agreed to allow Nazi Germany to annex part of Czechoslovakia in return for Adolf Hitler's pledge to respect Czechoslovakia's new borders. Protected Poland as part of the agreement.

Kristallnacht

1938

apan claimed provocation and attacked China, seizing this coveted province. This was the beginning of Japanese imperialism and Asian dominance. The League of Nations wanted to intervene but was hesitant because they couldn't rely on US support. Congress took an isolationist view and refused to get involved.

World War II

1939 - 1945

Between Axis and Allied Powers.
Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan
Allies: France, England, Russia, in 1941 US

Blitzkrieg

1939 - 1940

The tactical meaning of blitzkrieg involves a coordinated military effort by tanks, mobilized infantry, artillery and aircraft, to create an overwhelming local superiority in combat power, to overwhelm an enemy and break through its lines.

Lend-Lease Act

1941

US will provide England with whatever they need and the two countries will settle (money-wise) later

Hitler in USSR

1941 - 1943

Invades Russia, but Russia wins most battles

Atlantic Charter

1941

Churchill and FDR plan out post-war world

Attack on Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

Brings the US into WWII

D-Day

June 6, 1944

Allies trick Hitler, and successfully invade Normandy, France to earn a foothold in the country so they can continue to push out Nazi forces

Hiroshima

1945

Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima , was the end of the long and most destructive war . Allies demanded unconditional surrender by the Japanese

End of World War II

1945

Yalta Conference

1945

US, UK, and USSR officials discuss post-war Europe.

Potsdam Conference

1945

Truman, Stalin, and Churchill meet to discuss post-war arrangements for Europe. Also discuss Japan. Japan must immediately agree to unconditionally surrender, or face "prompt and utter destruction". Also divided Germany into 4 sections.

The Cold War

The Cold War Begins

1945

Baby Boom

1945 - 1960

The dramatic increase in birthrates around the world post WWII due to good economy in the United States

OAS

1947

Organization of American States: US and South America

Containment

1947

US foreign policy strategy created by George Kennan to repel all attempts at Soviet expansion.

Truman Doctrine

1947

USA's policy to help free countries that are being attacked. Became a driving force in Americas fight against the spread of communism. Provoked by the Greek and Turkish civil wars

Marshall Plan

1948

US policy to give aid to European countries in the aftermath of WWII. Gave money to stimulate their economy

Berlin Airlift

1948 - 1949

Year of US and W. European airplanes airlifting supplies into West Berlin, which had been blockaded by the USSR.

NATO

1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization:
Military alliance of the US, Canada, and W. Europe to support each other and provide retaliation when necessary. 'Attacking one = attacking all.'

China becomes communist

1949

Americans felt that when a communist coup (*lead by Mao Zedong) took over China, they had lost it to the Communists.

Russia's Hydrogen Bomb

1952

US's Hydrogen Bomb

1953

Does it AFTER Russia

McCarthy Hearings

1954

Congressional hearings called by McCarthy to accuse members of the army of communist ties. widely televised, McCarthy finally went too far. exposed the Senator's extremism and led to his eventual disgrace.

SEATO

1955

USA, England, France, and SE asian countries grouped together to prevent the spread of communism in that area

Warsaw Pact

1955

Where: USSR, Soviet bloc
What: military alliance to provide mutual assistance. Retaliation/response to NATO

Suez Crisis

1956

Where: Egypt
What: International crisis over nationalization of the Suez Canal.

Interstate Highway Act

1956

$27 Billion project to build the Interstate Highway system. Provided jobs and economic stimulus.

Soviet Suppression of Hungarian Revolution

1956

Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.

Russia's 1st ICBM

1957

Intercontinental ballistic missile

Sputnik

1957

The Soviets launched the first two satellites into space. The US realized its technological deficiency and the Space Race began.

Fidel Castro in Cuba

1959

Cuba becomes Communist

Bay of Pigs

1961

CIA-trained Cuban anti-communists attempted to invade the country and overthrow Fidel Castro. Miserable failure, and JFK takes full responsibility.

Berlin Wall

1961

Wall separating Communist and Capitalist Berlin. Represented the worldwide separation of these ideologies. The removal of the wall represented the crumbling "Iron Curtain" separating the bipolar world.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Conflict and fear of nuclear war after tensions over soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, Situation vary grave and tense.

Moscow-Washington Hotline

1963

A system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and Russia

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

1963

Prohibits all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground. It was developed both to slow the arms race (nuclear testing was, at the time, necessary for continued nuclear weapon advancements), and to stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet's atmosphere
Between US and USSR

Civil Rights Act

1964

Federal law banning racial discrimination or segregation in public facilities. Also prohibited employment descrimination. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforced this. Lead to the battle over the desegregation of schools.

Black Panthers

1966

Extremest organization created to protect black rights from police brutality. Part of the Black Power movement. Utilized confrontational, violent tactics.

Prague Spring

January 1968 - August 1968

Eight months of political freedom. Soviet tanks ruthlessly mowed down the entire city. The slow response lead to revolutionary thinking throughout the USSR.

SALT I

1972

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement:
Froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.

Watergate Scandal

1972

An episode of presidential criminal wrongdoing that created a constitutional crisis and brought an end to Nixons political career

OPEC

1973

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries:
Raise price of oil

War Powers Act

1973

Congressional act passed over Nixon's veto requiring the president to disclose all troop deployments to congress. It also restricted these deployments to 60 days without Congressional approval.

Camp David Accord

1978

Meeting between Israel and Egypt (coordinated by Pres. Carter). Lead to a peace treaty between the two nations.

Iranian Hostage Crisis

1979 - 1981

Where: US Embassy, Tehran, Iran
What: Stemmed from a protest of University Students opposed to the government and US involvement in Iranian politics. Demanded the US extradite the Shah back to Iran for a trial. Mainly opposed to Carter. Released minutes after Reagan took office.

Mikhail Gorbachev

1985 - 1991

Soviet leader that allowed capitalism

Third Reagan-Gorbachev summit meeting

1987

Meeting in October/November/December of each year to discuss relations between the two nations.

Berlin Wall is torn down

1989

The removal of the wall represented the crumbling "Iron Curtain" separating the bipolar world.

Soviet Union dissolves

1991

The Cold War ends

1991

Creation of European Union

1994

Korean War

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Vietnam Conflict

Ho Chi Minh announces indepedence

1945

VietMinh seize power

War against French resistance

1946 - 1954

French forces attack VietMinh sparking the war

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

1954

French ousted

Geneva Conference

1954

Vietnam is split into North and South at the 17th Parallel

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

1964

U.S. ship attacked by North Vietnam torpedo boats

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1964

False claim that US naval vessels had been attacked. LBJ used this as an excuse to increase US military involvement in Vietnam.

Tet Offensive

1968

Combined assault by VietCong and North Vietnamese Army on US positions. Begins My Lai massacre

Vietnamization

1969

Nixon draws back US troops from Vietnam

Ceasefire

1973

In Paris. All US troops are out by March

North Vietnam invades South

1975

Takes control of whole country after South Vietnamese President Duong Van Minh surrenders