Helped regulate and stabilize banking in the US especially through $ crisis of WWI
Clayton Anit-Trust Act
Ext. Sherman Anti-Trust Act, allowed labor unions and agricultural organizations
Federal Trade Commission
A federal agency created in 1914. its purpose is to promote free and fair competition in interstate commerce; this includes preventing false and misleading advertising.
World War I
1914 - 1918
Germany and Austria-Hungary, later joined by Turkey and Bulgaria
Great Britain, Russia, and France, later joined by Italy, Japan and the United States
British boat torpedoed by U-boats. Angered US
German note to Mexico proposing alliance against US. Intercepted by US, causing some of them to want to enter the war
Germany and Ally Armistice
2nd Battle of the Marne
Fought by river in France
League of Nations
An association of nations to preserve peace and resolve international disputes proposed in Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Washington Naval Conference
1919 - 1922
World leaders agreed to limit construction of warships
Paris Peace Conference
Peace of Versailles
World War II
Mussolini in power
1922 - 1943
Immigration Act of 1924
Established the Quota System:
Limited the number of immigrants each year. Formalized the exclusive definition of “whiteness” (Northern and Western Europeans seen as “ideal” material for American citizenship)
Stalin in power
1924 - 1953
1928 - 1933
Stalin's plans to build heavy industry, improve transportation, and increase farm output.
War is illegal
The Great Depression
1929 - 1945
The period of economic strife following the stock market crash on Black Tuesday.
Japan invades Manchuria
Japan claimed provocation and attacked China, seizing this coveted province. This was the beginning of Japanese imperialism and Asian dominance. The League of Nations wanted to intervene but was hesitant because they couldn't rely on US support. Congress took an isolationist view and refused to get involved.
The New Deals
1933 - 1935
-Huge number of small bills passed
-Focused on recovery of business and banks, for example the bank holiday and FDIC
Hitler in power
1933 - 1945
Invasion of Ethiopia
1935 - 1939
1935: No arms, no money
1936: Applies to civil wars also
2.5 1937: Strengthens previous acts
1939: CASH & CARRY
set up pensions for older people
set up unemployment insurance
gave states money to support dependent children of people with disabilities.
FDR did this, suppose to b temporary, not guaranteed to be there.
Congress of Industrial Organizations
A federation of North American labor unions, organized largely by industry rather than craft.
Spanish Civil War
1936 - 1939
Germany and Russia supply the country arms so that they're tested before the next war (WWII)
Representatives from Britain, France, Italy, and Germany, at which Britain and France agreed to allow Nazi Germany to annex part of Czechoslovakia in return for Adolf Hitler's pledge to respect Czechoslovakia's new borders. Protected Poland as part of the agreement.
apan claimed provocation and attacked China, seizing this coveted province. This was the beginning of Japanese imperialism and Asian dominance. The League of Nations wanted to intervene but was hesitant because they couldn't rely on US support. Congress took an isolationist view and refused to get involved.
World War II
1939 - 1945
Between Axis and Allied Powers.
Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan
Allies: France, England, Russia, in 1941 US
1939 - 1940
The tactical meaning of blitzkrieg involves a coordinated military effort by tanks, mobilized infantry, artillery and aircraft, to create an overwhelming local superiority in combat power, to overwhelm an enemy and break through its lines.
US will provide England with whatever they need and the two countries will settle (money-wise) later
Hitler in USSR
1941 - 1943
Invades Russia, but Russia wins most battles
Churchill and FDR plan out post-war world
Attack on Pearl Harbor
December 7, 1941
Brings the US into WWII
June 6, 1944
Allies trick Hitler, and successfully invade Normandy, France to earn a foothold in the country so they can continue to push out Nazi forces
Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima , was the end of the long and most destructive war . Allies demanded unconditional surrender by the Japanese
End of World War II
US, UK, and USSR officials discuss post-war Europe.
Truman, Stalin, and Churchill meet to discuss post-war arrangements for Europe. Also discuss Japan. Japan must immediately agree to unconditionally surrender, or face "prompt and utter destruction". Also divided Germany into 4 sections.
The Cold War
The Cold War Begins
1945 - 1960
The dramatic increase in birthrates around the world post WWII due to good economy in the United States
Organization of American States: US and South America
US foreign policy strategy created by George Kennan to repel all attempts at Soviet expansion.
USA's policy to help free countries that are being attacked. Became a driving force in Americas fight against the spread of communism. Provoked by the Greek and Turkish civil wars
US policy to give aid to European countries in the aftermath of WWII. Gave money to stimulate their economy
1948 - 1949
Year of US and W. European airplanes airlifting supplies into West Berlin, which had been blockaded by the USSR.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization:
Military alliance of the US, Canada, and W. Europe to support each other and provide retaliation when necessary. 'Attacking one = attacking all.'
China becomes communist
Americans felt that when a communist coup (*lead by Mao Zedong) took over China, they had lost it to the Communists.
Russia's Hydrogen Bomb
US's Hydrogen Bomb
Does it AFTER Russia
Congressional hearings called by McCarthy to accuse members of the army of communist ties. widely televised, McCarthy finally went too far. exposed the Senator's extremism and led to his eventual disgrace.
USA, England, France, and SE asian countries grouped together to prevent the spread of communism in that area
Where: USSR, Soviet bloc
What: military alliance to provide mutual assistance. Retaliation/response to NATO
What: International crisis over nationalization of the Suez Canal.
Interstate Highway Act
$27 Billion project to build the Interstate Highway system. Provided jobs and economic stimulus.
Soviet Suppression of Hungarian Revolution
Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.
Russia's 1st ICBM
Intercontinental ballistic missile
The Soviets launched the first two satellites into space. The US realized its technological deficiency and the Space Race began.
Fidel Castro in Cuba
Cuba becomes Communist
Bay of Pigs
CIA-trained Cuban anti-communists attempted to invade the country and overthrow Fidel Castro. Miserable failure, and JFK takes full responsibility.
Wall separating Communist and Capitalist Berlin. Represented the worldwide separation of these ideologies. The removal of the wall represented the crumbling "Iron Curtain" separating the bipolar world.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Conflict and fear of nuclear war after tensions over soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba, Situation vary grave and tense.
A system that allows direct communication between the leaders of the United States and Russia
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Prohibits all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground. It was developed both to slow the arms race (nuclear testing was, at the time, necessary for continued nuclear weapon advancements), and to stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet's atmosphere
Between US and USSR
Civil Rights Act
Federal law banning racial discrimination or segregation in public facilities. Also prohibited employment descrimination. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforced this. Lead to the battle over the desegregation of schools.
Extremest organization created to protect black rights from police brutality. Part of the Black Power movement. Utilized confrontational, violent tactics.
January 1968 - August 1968
Eight months of political freedom. Soviet tanks ruthlessly mowed down the entire city. The slow response lead to revolutionary thinking throughout the USSR.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement:
Froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
An episode of presidential criminal wrongdoing that created a constitutional crisis and brought an end to Nixons political career
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries:
Raise price of oil
War Powers Act
Congressional act passed over Nixon's veto requiring the president to disclose all troop deployments to congress. It also restricted these deployments to 60 days without Congressional approval.
Camp David Accord
Meeting between Israel and Egypt (coordinated by Pres. Carter). Lead to a peace treaty between the two nations.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
1979 - 1981
Where: US Embassy, Tehran, Iran
What: Stemmed from a protest of University Students opposed to the government and US involvement in Iranian politics. Demanded the US extradite the Shah back to Iran for a trial. Mainly opposed to Carter. Released minutes after Reagan took office.
1985 - 1991
Soviet leader that allowed capitalism
Third Reagan-Gorbachev summit meeting
Meeting in October/November/December of each year to discuss relations between the two nations.
Berlin Wall is torn down
The removal of the wall represented the crumbling "Iron Curtain" separating the bipolar world.
Soviet Union dissolves
The Cold War ends
Creation of European Union
1950 - 1953
Ho Chi Minh announces indepedence
VietMinh seize power
War against French resistance
1946 - 1954
French forces attack VietMinh sparking the war
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
Vietnam is split into North and South at the 17th Parallel
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
U.S. ship attacked by North Vietnam torpedo boats
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
False claim that US naval vessels had been attacked. LBJ used this as an excuse to increase US military involvement in Vietnam.
Combined assault by VietCong and North Vietnamese Army on US positions. Begins My Lai massacre
Nixon draws back US troops from Vietnam
In Paris. All US troops are out by March
North Vietnam invades South
Takes control of whole country after South Vietnamese President Duong Van Minh surrenders