Midterm Timeline

Main

Eastern Woodland Indians

600 bc - 200 bc

The Eastern Woodland Indians are Native Americans that lived in the eastern part of the United States. This group of Indians have been known to live in northwestern states like Tennessee and Kentucky. The Eastern Woodland Indians inhabited a wide area in the eastern part of the United States that went from the Mississippi River, through the Great Lakes region, to the Atlantic Ocean.

San Miguel de Gualdape

1475 - 1526

-San Miguel de Gualdape was the first European settlement inside, what is now, the United States territory. It was to last only three months of winter before being abandoned in early 1527.

-Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon of Spain established San Miguel de Gualdape, which is probably to this day Georgia town. The settlement failed within a year because of disease, and unrest in the black and American Indian populations.

Triangle Slave Trade

1600 - 1800

-The Triangular Trade is a route to trade slaves. In the triangular slave trade they traded items such as fish, lumber, and other goods from New England to the West Indies. In the West Indies they traded sugar and molasses. In the West Indies merchants carried rum, guns, gunpowder, and tools to West Africa. They traded these things for slaves.

13 English Colonies

1607 - 1732

-The first colonies in North America were founded on the eastern coast after European explorers had sailed up and down the Atlantic coast of North America English.

-The 13 colonies were: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island . Each colony developed its own system of self-government.

Mercantilism

1650 - 1700

-It is were a nation exports more than its imports to build its supply of gold and silver.

-Its main goal was to promote foreign trade and export for industries, including textiles.

Proprietary Colony

1663 - 1729

-A proprietary colony is a colony in where one or more private land owners have rights that are the privilege of the state.

-The people that lived there, owned there land and made their own rules

Rice and Indigo Trade

1680 - 1800

-Rice was grown successfully in South Carolina as early as 1680. By the early 18th century, with the slave system, rice became a major export crop of the region. Rice planting was extremely profitable Charleston rice exports rose from 10,000 pounds in 1698 to over 20 million pounds by 1730 and South Carolina's tidal swamps were well suited for it. Both crops could be grown using the same labor force.

Plantation System

1700 - 1800

-In the 17th century Europeans began to make settlements in the Americas this lead to plantation systems. Crops were grown on these plantations such as tobacco, rice, sugar cane and cotton. These crops had to be picked and sold to make a profit so slaves were in the fields from sunrise to sunset picking these crops. This lead to planters starting to purchase slaves which lead to popular slave markets.

Slave Codes

1705 - 1800

-slave codes was a set of rules based on the concept that slaves were property, not persons.
-Slave codes were laws in each US state, that gave the status of slaves and the rights of masters. These codes gave slave-owners absolute power over African slaves.

Yemassee War

1715 - 1717

The Yamasee War was between colonial South Carolina and many Indian tribes such as the Yamasee, Creek, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaws, Pee Dee, Cheraw, and others. Hundreds of colonists were killed and many settlements were destroyed.

-The cause of the Yamasee War was that the colinists were taking to much land and never gave any back. Other causes were trade, Rice plantations were brought wealth to the colonists and they did not share with the Indians who were becoming poorer.

-Native Americans won.

Royal Colony

1732 - 1752

-Royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire.
-Royal, colonies were ruled by a governor appointed by the Monarch.

Stono Rebellion

1739 - 1787

-The Stono Rebellion was a slave rebellion. It was the largest slave uprising prior to the American Revolution.

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

British Colonists wanted to take over French land in North America. The British wanted to take over the fur trade in the French territory.

-Native Americans joined in the battle against the British because they were afraid the British would take over their land.
-In the peace treaty of 1763 the British got most of the French land in North America. Also because of the war, the British began taxing the colonists to pay for the war.

Cherokee War

1758 - 1761

-The war was a conflict between British forces in North America and Cherokee Indian tribes during the French and Indian War.
-The British and the Cherokee had been allies at the start of the war.
-The French and Indian War caused the Cherokee War.
-Cherokee won

Sugar Act

1764 - 1776
  • The Sugar Act was an act that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, wine. -It banned importation of rum and French wines. -The taxes were later raised -Affected merchants very much

Stamp Act

1765 - 1766

-The stamp act was the first British tax on American colonists.
- Every newspaper, pamphlet, and other public or legal document had to have a Stamp, or British seal, on it which cost money.
-The colonists didn't think they should have to pay for something they have been doing free for many years

Sons of Liberty

1765 - 1773

-The Sons of Liberty was a group of American patriots
-The group was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to go against the taxes of the British government. They are best known for the Boston Tea Party in 1773, which led to the Intolerable Acts.

Regulator Movement

1767 - 1771

-TheRegulator movement was made for two groups. One in South Carolina, the other in North Carolina, that tried to effect governmental changes in the 1760s.

-In South Carolina, the Regulator movement was an organized effort by settlers to restore law and establish institutions for local governments.

Tea Act

05/10/1773 - 12/16/1773

-American colonists could buy no tea unless it came from that company.
- The Tea Act lowered the price on the East India tea so much that it was way below tea from other suppliers.
-American colonists saw this as "taxation without representation" because it meant that they couldn't buy tea from anyone else without spending a lot more money.

Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

-The 13 American colonies fought for independence from British rule to become the United States.
-Colonists were mad because Britain forced them to pay taxes, yet did not give them any representation in Parliament “no taxation without representation.”

-The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783. The treaty made a northern boundary with Canada and set the Mississippi River as the western boundary.

South Carolina Constitution of 1776

03/26/1776 - 1778

-Three months before the Declaration of Independence was signed – South Carolina adopted a state constitution, becoming the first independent government in the colonies.

Declaration of Independence

07/04/1776
  • Document declaring the 13 American Colonies independent from Great Britain.
  • Written by Thomas Jefferson and declared in effect by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. -56 men signed this amendment

Articles of Confederation

1777 - 1781

-The Continental Congress wrote the Articles of Confederation during the Revolutionary War. The articles were written to give the colonies some sense of a united government.
-The Articles of Confederation became effective on March 1, 1781, after all thirteen states had ratified them.

Battle of Camden

08/16/1780

-The Battle of Camden was a major victory for the British in the South of the American Revolutionary War.
-The British were able to establish a strong position in the South.
-More than half of American troops captured or killed; British on verge of taking control of South Carolina

Battle of Kings Mountain

10/07/1780

-“Turning point” of the war in the South. Americans now have the advantage.
-Americans won
-Loyalist against Patriots

Battle of Cowpens

01/17/1781

-British under Lord Cornwallis left South Carolina after the defeat; South Carolina is not threatened again.
-Americans won
-Americans against the British and loyalist

Battle of Eutaw Springs

09/08/1781

-The Battle of Eutaw Springs was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, and was the last major engagement of the war in the Carolinas.
-Americans against the British
-British tactical victory and American Strategic Advantage...

Great Compromise

1787

-The Great Compromise was an agreement made from the delegates to the Constitutional Convention that the American government would have two houses in Congress: the Senate where each state has two Senators, and the House of Representatives where each state has a number of Representatives based on population.

3/5 Compromise

1787

-The Constitutional Convention's agreement to count three-fifths of a state's slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation.
-An agreement between the Northern and Southern states to count each slave as 3/5 of a person, or count only 3/5 of the population of slaves, for tax purposes.

Commerce Compromise

08/29/1787

-The Commerce Compromise is when The Constitution allows the federal government to tax imports but not exports.

-Southerners and Northerners were very mad over the Government tariffs and the compromise was made.

Constitution

09/17/1787

-The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the U.S.A
-The Constitution assigned to Congress for making the executive and judicial branches, raising revenue, declaring war, and making all laws necessary for eliminating these powers.
-The Constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was ratified by conventions in eleven states on June 21, 1788. It went into effect on March 4, 1789.
- The US Constitution cant be changed. Constitutional amendments are added to it.
-The first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights. The Constitution has been amended seventeen times (total of twenty seven amendments).

Cotton Gin

1794 - 1860

-The cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily removes the cotton fibers from their seeds. This difficult job otherwise had to be done by hand.
-Eli Whitney was the inventor of the cotton gin and a pioneer in the mass production of cotton.
-Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States.

Cotton Trade

1800 - 1860

-In the 1800s cotton was America’s leading export, and raw cotton was essential for the economy of Europe. The cotton industry was one of the world’s largest industries, and most of the world supply of cotton came from the American South.

-This industry,worked by the labor of slaves on plantations, made huge sums of money for the United States and influenced the nation’s ability to borrow money in a global markets.

Embargo Act

1807 - 1809

-The embargo act was a new law that restricted American ships to sail to foreign ports, and it also closed American ports to British ships.
-It passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by Thomas Jefferson.

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

-The War of 1812 was a war between the United States and the United Kingdom.
-In 1812, the United States declared war against Great Britain. this was because for the past twenty years, Britain claimed the right to take American ships on the high seas, stop their cargoes, etc.

-The country's economy was depressed because the lack of exports, and the U.S. Congress declared war on June 18, 1812.

William T. Sherman

02/08/1820 - 02/14/1891

-William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He served as a General in the Union Army during the Civil War.
-He was in charge of the infamous "Sherman's march to the sea"
-He led the Union Army of Tennessee across Georgia, destroying the Confederate supply lines.

Denmark Vesey Plot

1822

-It was a plot created by Denmark Vesey. Slaves were going to revolt against their masters. Afterwards, word got out about it and the plot failed. Denmark Vesey and other people involved in the plot were hung.

Abolitionist Movement

1830 - 1870

-The main purpose of the abolitionist movement was to earn an emancipation for all slaves in the U.S. and to end the segregation and discrimination of African Americans.
-The goal of this movement was to bring all slaves to freedom without compensation from their owners. They wanted all African Americans to have equal rights as Whites.

Nullification Controversy

1832 - 1833

-"The Nullification Crisis of 1832 involved the United States government wanting to enforce tariffs and South Carolina’s authority to nullify such laws."
-The states didn't want to pay the protective tariff that president Andrew Jackson wanted, and the states claimed the right to "nullify"

Robert Smalls

04/05/1839 - 02/23/1915

-Robert Smalls was an enslaved African American who, during and after the American Civil War, became a ship's pilot, sea captain, and politician.
-Robert Smalls is best known for being a slave who became a politician, serving in both the South Carolina legislature and the U.S. House of Representatives.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854 - 1867

-Kansas-Nebraska Act was a bill that became law on May 30, 1854, which the U.S. Congress established the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

Dred Scott Decision

1857

-Dred Scott's master took him to free land. His master later then died. Scott though he should be freed, so he sued. One man said to him that he is not human and said doesn't deserve rights. This was decided and Scott never got his freedom.

Election of 1860

1860

-The Democrats met in Charleston, South Carolina, in April 1860 to select their candidate for President in the upcoming election.
-With four candidates in the field, Lincoln received only 40% of the popular vote and 180 electoral votes. This meant that 60% of the voters selected someone other than Lincoln.
-A few weeks after the election, South Carolina seceded from the Union.

“Total War”

1861 - 1865

-Sherman wanted to attack the civilian "infrastructure" that supported the Confederate armies in the field.

-This involved destruction of property
-After driving the Confederates out of Atlanta, Sherman entered the city destroying only the churches, courthouse and the city’s private residences, Sherman’s troops cut the telegraph wires and burned everything else of consequence: warehouses, train depots, factories.

Creation of the Confederate States of America

1861 - 1865

-South Carolina was the first state to secede from the Union on December 20, 1860. South Carolina asked the other slave states to join together in forming a new nation.
-February 1861 six other states followed South Carolina. They were Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
-These seven states formed a new union called the Confederate States of America.

Secessionist

1861 - 1865

-The secession of Southern States led to the making of the Confederacy and causing the civil war. It was the most serious secession movement in the United States and was defeated when the Union armies defeated the Confederate armies in the Civil War, 1861-1865.

-Secessionist is a term used to label the Southerners who wanted to leave the Union.

Ft Sumter

04/12/1861 - 04/14/1861

-Was designed as a part of a defense system for Charleston harbor. Best known as were shots from American Civil War were fired at the battle of fort Sumter.

Civil War

04/12/1861 - 05/09/1865

-The American Civil War was fought between the North (Union states) and the South (Confederate states). It lasted from 1861-1865, made by the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Lincoln wanted to end slavery and keep the Union together.

-The conflict between the North and the South started because of their different ways of living. The North wanted the South to give up their farms, build factories, and end slavery. Congress treated the slaves as personal property and would not take away rights of ownership.

Port Royal

11/07/1861

-To sustain and strengthen its blockade of Southern ports, the U.S. Navy needed to have a coaling, refitting, and supply station located somewhere on the southeast coast. The place that held it all was at Port Royal, SC., located in the critical area between Charleston and Savannah.

In late October 1861, Flag Officer Samuel F. Du Pont assembled a fleet of 75 warships, with 12,000 troops in transport. Their objective was Port Royal Sound, that was guarded on either side of the harbor entrance.

-Confederates fought on through the morning and into the afternoon. But with their ammunition supply almost gone and all exhausted, they were forced to flee their forts and the Union won

Lincoln’s assassination

04/14/1865

-The assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln took place on a Friday on April 14, 1865, as the American Civil War was coming to an end.
-The assassination was planned by John Wilkes Booth

-John Wilkes Booth entered the presidential box at Ford's Theatre in Washington D.C., and shot President Abraham Lincoln. He managed to leap onto the stage and escaped through the back door. Lincoln was then carried across the street to Petersen's Boarding House, where he died early the next morning.