European History Independent Study


Course Length

1648 - 1945

This is the time covered in the course.

Revolutions, Riots, and Movements of Change

The Enightenment

1650 - 1789

There is little agreement on the start and end of the Enlightenment, so these are approximate dates. 1789 is also the French Revolution, which some believe to be the end of the Enlightened Era.

Grain Riots

1693 - 1854

Grain Riots occurred sporadically during this time span, not every year.

Industrial Revolution

1780 - 1830


French Revolution

1789 - 1799

Luddite Movement

November 1811 - January 1813

European Revolutions

2/23/1848 - 1849

In 1848 there were widespread revolutions throughout Western and Central Europe, mainly in France, Germany, Italy, Austria and Poland.

Russian Revolution

March 8, 1917 - November 8, 1917


30 Years' War

1618 - 1648

Napoleonic Wars

May 18, 1803 - November 20, 1815

World War I

July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918

United States Enters World War I

April 1, 1917

This was a large turning point in the war, and countered the effect of Russia's demobilization following the Russian Revolution.

World War II

September 1, 1939 - September 2, 1945

Assassinations (those with an asterisk (*) next to the title were by anarchists)

**Alexander II*

13 March 1881

The Russian Tsar was killed by the anarchist organization Narodnaya Volya, or "People's Will".

**Sadi Carnot**

June 24 1894

The French President was assassinated by an Italian anarchist, Sante Geronimo Caserio.
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**Umberto I**

July 29 1900

The King of Italy was killed by an Italian-American anarchist, Gaetano Bresci.

**Carlos I**

February 1 1908

The King of Portugal was killed by two anarchists, Alfredo Costa and Manuel Buica.

**George I**

March 13, 1913

The longtime King of Greece was killed by a Grecian anarchist, Alexandros Schinas.

Franz Ferdinand

June 28, 1914

The Archduke of Austria was killed by a 19 year old Serb nationalist named Gavrilo Princip. This event is often referred to as the catalyst for World War.

Important Rulers (Dates are of time in position)

Peter The Great

May 7 1682 - February 8 1725


May 18 1804 - April 11 1814

Napoleon was also the Emperor of the French for a short period later, from March 20, 1815 to June 22 of the same year.

Winston Churchill

May 10 1940 - July 26 1945

Churchill was also the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from October 26, 1951 to April 7, 1955. I chose to put his earlier tenure on the timeline as that is what he is most famous for, his heroic leadership during World War II.

End of Empires

End of Russian Empire


End of Austro-Hungarian Empire


End of German Empire


End of Ottoman Empire


Ended due to aftereffects of World War I.