Unit VI 1450 C.E. to 1750 C.E.

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Ottoman Empire

1300 - 1922

Islamic state founded by Osman in NW Anatolia; based in Istanbulafter fall of Byzantine Empire; encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 - 1460

Third son of the king of Portugal who devoted his life to promoting the exploration of the South Pacific; motives- converting Africans to Christianity, making contact with preexisting Christians in Africa, and launching joint crusades with them against the Ottoman; never ventured of the coast of North Africa, but founded an institute at Sagres for studing navigation and collecting information about more distant lands

Reign of Mehmed II

1451 - 1481

"the conqueror" laid siege to Constantinople in 1453 and defeating the city after a series of assults, bringing the end of the 11+ year rule of the Byzantines; made the Ottoman seem invincible;

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Young professor who started the Protestant Reformation with his objections to the Catholic Church discussed in his 95 Theses; claimed salvation was based on faith not works-indulgences the church sold to pay for large building projects

Safavid Dynasty

1501 - 1722

One of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran; ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia; Shi'a Islam as the official religion of their empire-marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history; controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan and Armenia, most of Iraq, Georgia, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus, as well as parts of Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

French business man that studied theology and came to teach that Christianity was based on faith over works but also focused in "presendented" salvation; followers displayed simplicity in dress, life, and worship

Reign of Suleiman the Magnificient

1520 - 1566

"the Lawgiver" commanded the greatest Ottoman assult on Christian Europe; looked back on as a golden age when the imperial system worked to perfection

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1857

Muslim state that exercised dominion over most of India till the sixteenth and seventeenth century

Reign of Akbar I

1556 - 1605

Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India; expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Italian physist who observed the heavens and discovered heavenly bodies were not perfectly round- moon had mountains and valleys, sun spots, other planets had their own moon, Earth was not alone in being heavy and changeable

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Collection of treaties that brought an end to the Thirty Years War

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

French colonies threatened by English settlement as the English colonies increased in population and prosperity in the French and Indian War that escalated into the larger Seven Years War that proved to be a final test for the North American Empire over the ruling power.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The rising up of the indigenous peope to drive the whites out of Saint-Domingue/ Haiti and declare the independent Republic of Haiti; closely resembled the French Revolution

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Songhai Empire

1375 - 1591

Empire in West Africa that drew its wealth from trans-Saharan trade and was ruled by an indigenous Muslim dynasty; Morroco destroyed Songhai which weakened the trans-Saharan trade in western Sudan

Reign of Sunni Ali

1464 - 1492

Became the ruler of Songhai while it was small, but turned it into the largest, most powerful empire in West Africa; led his army and ruled his empire on horseback traveling; capital- Timbuktu- became a major center of commerce and culture

Columbus' First Voyage

1492

His voyage eestablished the existence of a vast new world across the Atlantic even though Colombus refused to acknowledge this, believing he had found a shorter route to the Indian Ocean; indirectly caused the Columbian Exchange

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Treaty of the Spanish and the Portuguese created to clear up confusion on claims to the New World; Spain received a much large piece of land (Portugal only getting Brazil)

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Held 3 sessions to distinguish proper Catholic doctrine from Protestant "errors"; beginnings of the Catholic Reformation

Spanish Armada

1568 - 1588

Largest fleet; helped Spain's Empire to dominate the Americas from 1492 till the English invasions as well as Europe; defeated by smaller, swifter English ships during the war between England and Spain at the end of the 16th century- as a result Britain became the strongest naval power in the world

Reign of Emperor Wanli

1572 - 1620

Recluse who paid little attention to government affairs which contributed to the abuses of power by provincial officials and other political figures (dominated this era of Chinese history); lef to dissatisfaction and unrest, preparing the way for the invasion from the north by the Manchu; some of the earliest Western inroads into China

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1868

Last of the three shogunates in Japan; fuedal military dictatorship/rigid social hierarchy with minimal mobility between classes; warrior samurai held the most power-> farmers-> artisans-> traders

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Worst of the European international conflicts that caused long-lasting depopulation and economic decline in much of the Holy Roman Empire; benefits included improvements in European armed force skill and weaponry

John Locke

1632 - 1704

English political philosopher claimed that rulers derived authority from the consent of the governed and like everyone else were subject to law; if rulers didn't obey citizens and the authority and duty to rebel

Qing Empire

1644 - 1911

Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire; 1660-1800 period of great economic, military, and cultural achievement in China

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Beginning of Portuguese Slave Trade

1470 - 1500

Portuguese were first to arrive on the Gold Coast in search of gold in 1471, but in the 1500s with the growth in popularity of plantations which resulted in an increased demand for slaves, gold trade was overshadowed by slave trade to the Americas and east

Dias' Voyage in the Indian Ocean

1488

Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean; revolutionary for European's in gaining foothold in global commerce and expansion

Spanish Conquest in Mexico

1519 - 1521

Hernan Cortes landed in Mexico in 1519; his small crew of 500 stood little chance against the vast numbers of Aztecs, but with disease and military intellect on their side the little fleet conquered the great Aztecs

End of British Slave Trade

1787 - 1833

Europe used its power to put pressure on other nations to end their slave trade in the Atlantic Ocean; one of the most efficient "machines' of the 18th century, but in the 19th century it led the world in abolition

First Colony in Australia

1788

After England lost its American colonies, it needed another alternative for British colonization so Australia was chosen for settlement; needed a place to store overflow of minor offenders of the law who were usually farmers or artisans and might be pardoned in exchange for colonizing.