Belgians rose up against the Dutch and succeeded in convincing the major European powers to accept and independent, neutral Belgium.
Poland revolutionaries tried to end Russian control of their country. Polish insurgents failed to get hoped-for support from France and Britain, by September 1831 the Russians had crushed the revolt and established an oppressive military dictatorship over Poland.
A severe industrial and agricultural depression beginning in 1846 brought untold hardship to the lower middle class, workers, and peasant. Louis-Philippe's government continued to refuse to make changes and Adolphe Thiers was the leader of the upper middle class.
The Hungarian liberal gentry under Louis Kossuth agitated for "commonwealth" status; they were willing to keep the Habsburg monarch, but wanted their own legislation.
Handicraft workers in many German states were destroying the machines and factories that they blames for depriving them of their jobs; peasants looted and burned the manor houses of the nobility.
Rebellions spread northward as ruler after ruler granted a constitution to his people. Citizens in Lombardy and Venetia also rebelled against their Austrian overlords.
In pursuit of self-government nationalities everywhere started to revolt. Little was resolved as divisions among nationalities proved utterly disastrous.