Leo X. Gave the French King the powers to control the clergy in France, while the Pope got money.
Ruled for her three incompetent sons. Terrible politique.
Catholics killed thousands of Hugenots after Henry III of Navarre's wedding. Caused Henry to convert. Pope was so happy that he rewarded the messenger with gold.
"Paris is well worth a Mass". Converted to Catholicism then back to Protestantism. Edict of Nantes gave Hugenots religious liberties. Killed in his carriage by a religious fanatic.
Relied on Cardinal Richelieu to rule
Richelieu sent French troops to help the Swedes. By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe.
Led France for Louis XIII after Marie de Medici was kicked out. Gave attention to a group of philologists and birthed the French Academy. Crushed noble rebellions swiftly and harshly. Reshuffled the royal council and destroyed castles. Supported Gustavus Adolphus against the Hapsburgs in the 30 years war. Took away rights granted to Hugenots in the Edict of Nantes.
"I am the state". Worked to cooperate with the nobility, rather than have absolute control of them. Repealed Edict of Nantes. Built a palace that he couldn't afford and taxed the poor more than the nobles.
Charles II left the throne of Spain to Louis' grandson. The Dutch and British thought this unification would upset the balance of power.
Louis Quinze (French Rococo)
Separation of powers. Strong, independent upper class.
England vs France, Austria, and Russia. France lost all hold in American and most holds in India
Didn't like the Church. Was Deist. Strong advocate of freedom of speech.
General Will- common interests of the people. Said society corrupted and believed in emotion over reason, so is considered against the enlightenment.
Wishy-washy, schlub. Married to Marie Antoinette. French hated her because she spent way too much money on herself, was Austrian, and like to pretend to be poor. He was beheaded for treason
France helped America to get back at the British. Caused France to go even further into debt.
What is the Third Estate?- Stated the Third Estate was the backbone of France and the other two estates were dead weight. Assignats- money backed by church properties. Civil con- put Catholicism in France under control of the government, not the Pope.
National Convention was in charge. COPS- group tasked with dealing with national emergencies. Reign of Terror- Robespierre and COPS began falsely imprisoning "traitors" and killed a bunch of people. Thermodorian Reaction- the immediate reaction to the Terror. Respectable middle-class people retook control and ended the Terror
Concordat of 1801 reestablished the Catholic church in France. Napoleonic code made all men equal under law. Continental System was a blockade against all ships trading coming into or out of British waters. Peninsular War- Guerrilla troops in Spain fighting against Napoleon's troops because Spain violated the continental system. Invasion of Russia- Winter stopped Napoleon's troops. Hundred days- the period in which Napoleon returned after his first exile. Waterloo- Napoleon's final defeat; exiled to St. Helena
5 man executive to rule France
Charter of 1814- Constitution granted by Louis XVIII. Required by the COV if he was to be restored to the throne
Balance of power, legitimate rulers returned to power, preventing future wars. Talleyrand represented France. France was treated lightly, until the Hundred Days. After that they were punished more severely.
Conservation. July Ordinances- Decreased the amount of people able to vote. The people didn't like it
Against Charles X. Peasants revolted and made barricades in the streets to fight the soldiers.
called the citizen King and his reign was known as the “Bourgeoisie" Monarchy. Gave the people freedoms. Ignored the demands of the working class and that caused the Rebellion of 1848.
Against Louis Philippe. Resulted in second French Republic
Rioting against National Workshops. Led to a government run by an elected leader.
Louis Blanc- Wanted a National Government workshop. Didn't work out so good
Republican government. All men could vote. Socialist influence. Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was president
Perfected printing press in Europe. Made publishing books easier. Renaissance.
Salvation through faith- you just gotta believe. Priesthood of all believers- everyone is equal in the eyes of the lord. Beliefs on government- conservative. Religious equality didn't extend to political equality.
Universal Monarch. Inherited all of his lands. Split his land up when he retired.
Luther was summoned by the Pope to recant. Was issued an arrest warrant (Edict of Worms) after he didn't recant.
Used priesthood of all believers to justify political equality. Luther wrote By the Murderous and Thieving Horde saying he didn't agree with it
Catholic church leaders met to discuss reforming the church. Was somewhat successful, kept the indulgences and stuff.
Charles V vs the Protestant Schmalkaldic League. Spanish Imperial victory
Allowed Princes in HRE to decide the religion of their people. Accepted Lutheranism but not Calvinism. Cuius regio, eius religio- Whose realm, his religion
Protestants vs Catholic. Started in the Bohemian States. Richelieu supported whoever was fighting against the Hapsburgs
Forced peasant labor
Turks attacked the Austrians.
Pragmatic Sanction- Ensured a daughter could inherit Hapsburg possessions.
Limited Papacy's political influence, strengthened central bureaucracy and fixed tax system, gave serfs partial freedom.
Fredrick of Prussia vs Maria Theresa of Austria. Prussia won.Silesia went to Prussia
France, Russia, and Austria vs Prussia. Peter III of Russia called off the attack.
Maria Theresa's son. Gave rights to Protestants and Jews
Hated nationalism and liberalism. Carlsbad Decrees- censored universities and newspapers.
Wanted more liberal government. Metternich was dismissed. Austrian soldiers put down the rebellion.
"Soldier King"- made Prussia into Sparta
Prussia vs Austria. Prussia got Silesea.
Ignored Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Austria. Took Silesea. Abolished torture of prisoners.
Prussia vs Austria, France, and Russia. Russia stopped the attack
Prussia favored Kleine Deutsch because it only united the northern states, excluding Austria. Austria liked Gross Deustch because it encompassed all German states
Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences- people aren't aware of the lack of progress in their societies.
Discussed the unification of the German states. Offered crown to Fredrick William IV. He refused because it was too liberal.
City-states ruled by Princes.
Began in Florence
Study of ancient Greece and Rome. Idea that human achievements are better than spiritual ones
Medici's ruled. Very wealthy and controlled the Mediterranean trade.
Killed his pappy and tried to unite Italy. Machiavelli admired him because he tried to unite Italy and he was a strong leader.
Leader of Florence during the start of the Renaissance.
Crazy friar, who criticized the Catholic church. Tried to get Medici's kicked out of Florence. Failed, burned at da steak
Began in Rome.
The Prince- Lays out guidelines for rulers to be great succeed. New monarchs
Invasion of Charles V ended it.
Book of the Courtier- tells how to be the perfect Renaissance man
Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems- Heliocentric universe. Church didn't like it. Recanted
On Crime and Punishment- Criminals should be treated better, and no capital punishment
Unification of Italy. Guiseppi Mazzini's group- wanted democracy. Sardinians- wanted constitutional monarchy. Neo Guelfs- wanted Catholic theocracy
Italy was divided.
Poland- Divided. Concert of Europe- Balance of power that existed until WWI
Heart of the Italian unification. Young Italy group. Wanted democracy.
The three groups didn't unify.