AP Euro stuffs



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution / Enlightenment

1550 - 1800

Age of Absolutism

1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


Leo X. Gave the French King the powers to control the clergy in France, while the Pope got money.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Ruled for her three incompetent sons. Terrible politique.

St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre


Catholics killed thousands of Hugenots after Henry III of Navarre's wedding. Caused Henry to convert. Pope was so happy that he rewarded the messenger with gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a Mass". Converted to Catholicism then back to Protestantism. Edict of Nantes gave Hugenots religious liberties. Killed in his carriage by a religious fanatic.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Relied on Cardinal Richelieu to rule

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sent French troops to help the Swedes. By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe.


1624 - 1642

Led France for Louis XIII after Marie de Medici was kicked out. Gave attention to a group of philologists and birthed the French Academy. Crushed noble rebellions swiftly and harshly. Reshuffled the royal council and destroyed castles. Supported Gustavus Adolphus against the Hapsburgs in the 30 years war. Took away rights granted to Hugenots in the Edict of Nantes.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state". Worked to cooperate with the nobility, rather than have absolute control of them. Repealed Edict of Nantes. Built a palace that he couldn't afford and taxed the poor more than the nobles.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Charles II left the throne of Spain to Louis' grandson. The Dutch and British thought this unification would upset the balance of power.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Louis Quinze (French Rococo)

Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws)


Separation of powers. Strong, independent upper class.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

England vs France, Austria, and Russia. France lost all hold in American and most holds in India

Voltaire (Candide)


Didn't like the Church. Was Deist. Strong advocate of freedom of speech.



General Will- common interests of the people. Said society corrupted and believed in emotion over reason, so is considered against the enlightenment.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Wishy-washy, schlub. Married to Marie Antoinette. French hated her because she spent way too much money on herself, was Austrian, and like to pretend to be poor. He was beheaded for treason

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped America to get back at the British. Caused France to go even further into debt.

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

What is the Third Estate?- Stated the Third Estate was the backbone of France and the other two estates were dead weight. Assignats- money backed by church properties. Civil con- put Catholicism in France under control of the government, not the Pope.

17. 1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention was in charge. COPS- group tasked with dealing with national emergencies. Reign of Terror- Robespierre and COPS began falsely imprisoning "traitors" and killed a bunch of people. Thermodorian Reaction- the immediate reaction to the Terror. Respectable middle-class people retook control and ended the Terror


1795 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 reestablished the Catholic church in France. Napoleonic code made all men equal under law. Continental System was a blockade against all ships trading coming into or out of British waters. Peninsular War- Guerrilla troops in Spain fighting against Napoleon's troops because Spain violated the continental system. Invasion of Russia- Winter stopped Napoleon's troops. Hundred days- the period in which Napoleon returned after his first exile. Waterloo- Napoleon's final defeat; exiled to St. Helena


1795 - 1799

5 man executive to rule France


1814 - 1824

Charter of 1814- Constitution granted by Louis XVIII. Required by the COV if he was to be restored to the throne

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of power, legitimate rulers returned to power, preventing future wars. Talleyrand represented France. France was treated lightly, until the Hundred Days. After that they were punished more severely.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservation. July Ordinances- Decreased the amount of people able to vote. The people didn't like it

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. Peasants revolted and made barricades in the streets to fight the soldiers.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

called the citizen King and his reign was known as the “Bourgeoisie" Monarchy. Gave the people freedoms. Ignored the demands of the working class and that caused the Rebellion of 1848.

February Revolt


Against Louis Philippe. Resulted in second French Republic

June Days


Rioting against National Workshops. Led to a government run by an elected leader.

Provisional Government


Louis Blanc- Wanted a National Government workshop. Didn't work out so good

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Republican government. All men could vote. Socialist influence. Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was president

Holy Roman Empire



Perfected printing press in Europe. Made publishing books easier. Renaissance.



Salvation through faith- you just gotta believe. Priesthood of all believers- everyone is equal in the eyes of the lord. Beliefs on government- conservative. Religious equality didn't extend to political equality.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal Monarch. Inherited all of his lands. Split his land up when he retired.

Diet of Worms


Luther was summoned by the Pope to recant. Was issued an arrest warrant (Edict of Worms) after he didn't recant.

German Peasant Revolt


Used priesthood of all believers to justify political equality. Luther wrote By the Murderous and Thieving Horde saying he didn't agree with it

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic church leaders met to discuss reforming the church. Was somewhat successful, kept the indulgences and stuff.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Charles V vs the Protestant Schmalkaldic League. Spanish Imperial victory

Peace of Augsburg


Allowed Princes in HRE to decide the religion of their people. Accepted Lutheranism but not Calvinism. Cuius regio, eius religio- Whose realm, his religion

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Protestants vs Catholic. Started in the Bohemian States. Richelieu supported whoever was fighting against the Hapsburgs

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815




Forced peasant labor

Battle of Vienna


Turks attacked the Austrians.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction- Ensured a daughter could inherit Hapsburg possessions.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Limited Papacy's political influence, strengthened central bureaucracy and fixed tax system, gave serfs partial freedom.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Fredrick of Prussia vs Maria Theresa of Austria. Prussia won.Silesia went to Prussia

7 Years War

1756 - 1763

France, Russia, and Austria vs Prussia. Peter III of Russia called off the attack.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Maria Theresa's son. Gave rights to Protestants and Jews


1821 - 1848

Hated nationalism and liberalism. Carlsbad Decrees- censored universities and newspapers.

1848 Revolts


Wanted more liberal government. Metternich was dismissed. Austrian soldiers put down the rebellion.


Fredrick William I

1713 - 1740

"Soldier King"- made Prussia into Sparta

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia vs Austria. Prussia got Silesea.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Ignored Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Austria. Took Silesea. Abolished torture of prisoners.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Prussia vs Austria, France, and Russia. Russia stopped the attack

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate


Prussia favored Kleine Deutsch because it only united the northern states, excluding Austria. Austria liked Gross Deustch because it encompassed all German states

George Friederick Hegel


Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences- people aren't aware of the lack of progress in their societies.

Frankfurt Assembly


Discussed the unification of the German states. Offered crown to Fredrick William IV. He refused because it was too liberal.


Political Organization of Italy


City-states ruled by Princes.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence


1450 - 1500

Study of ancient Greece and Rome. Idea that human achievements are better than spiritual ones

Prestige of Florence


Medici's ruled. Very wealthy and controlled the Mediterranean trade.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Killed his pappy and tried to unite Italy. Machiavelli admired him because he tried to unite Italy and he was a strong leader.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Leader of Florence during the start of the Renaissance.

Friar Savanrola

1494 - 1498

Crazy friar, who criticized the Catholic church. Tried to get Medici's kicked out of Florence. Failed, burned at da steak

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Began in Rome.



The Prince- Lays out guidelines for rulers to be great succeed. New monarchs

End of Itailian Renaissance


Invasion of Charles V ended it.



Book of the Courtier- tells how to be the perfect Renaissance man



Dialogue concerning the Two Chief World Systems- Heliocentric universe. Church didn't like it. Recanted

Cesare Beccaria


On Crime and Punishment- Criminals should be treated better, and no capital punishment



Unification of Italy. Guiseppi Mazzini's group- wanted democracy. Sardinians- wanted constitutional monarchy. Neo Guelfs- wanted Catholic theocracy

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Italy was divided.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Poland- Divided. Concert of Europe- Balance of power that existed until WWI

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Giuseppi Mazzini


Heart of the Italian unification. Young Italy group. Wanted democracy.



The three groups didn't unify.