AP Euro Timeline


Concordat of Bologna

1516 - 1517

Agreement between Pope Leo X and Francis I of France that gave Pope authority over Church Councils in exchange for Papal recognition of Francis I over French Church

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Ruled for her three sons, tried to be a politique but failed because of St. Bartholomew's day Massacre

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

May 1572 - June 1572

Catherine de Medici ordered all the Huguenots at the wedding of Henry of Navarre to be slaughtered. Ruined her chances of being a politique, Pope was thrilled when he found out and gave the messenger a bag of gold

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

said "Paris is well worth a mass", he won the war of the three Henry's and became Catholic, created the Edict of Nantes which gave Huguenots areas they could live and practice. He was killed by a religious zealot

Louis XIII/ Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Richelieu had all the power, Richelieu started the French Academy to regulate French language, hated nobles and had their power minimized, hated Hapsburgs so fought against them in Thirty Years War and Huguenots so he changed the Edict of Nantes

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu ordered French troops to fight the Hapsburgs because he felt threatened by them, "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"The Sun King", said "I am the state", bad at economics because he spent a ton of money on Versailles and randomly started wars just for the heck of it, revoked the Edict of Nantes which made Huguenots leave (with their tax base), wanted everyone to be Catholic and controlled nobles by making them live in Versailles

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Fought to avoid the unification of France and Spain (Spance) after Charles II abdicated his throne to his French relative Philip of Anjou, Quadruple Alliance won

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Bourbon King of France, mistress was Madame de Pompadour, Rococo art style

Montesquieu (Publishes Spirit of Laws)

1/1/1748 - 1/2/1748

Government should be separated to prevent too much power being concentrated

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia were on continent fighting over territory, off continent austria's allies France and Russia vs Prussia but Prussia and Britain win, Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes in europe off continent but Britain gets France's colonies in North America

Voltaire (Publishes Candide)

1/1/1759 - 1/2/1759

believed everyone should have free speech, and hated the Catholic church

Rousseau (Pub. Social Contract and Emile)

Jan. 1762 - Feb. 1762

believed the General Will of the people was what should control government, each child should be educated and nurtured, considered against the Enlightenment because he thought people should act on emotion and not logic

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

He was a weak, inactive ruler, his wife was Marie Antoinnette of Austria, French hated her because she spent money exessively, he was removed from power and eventually beheaded by Robespierre on the charge of treason against France.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped the Americans to get back at Britain after the Seven Years War, it financially hurt France as well as inspiring revolution among the French

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes believed that the 3rd estate should have most control because they were the majority, the Assignat was the form of money, and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy turned the church over to the government, the Constitution of 1791 formed the first Constitution of the revolution, making France a Constitutional Monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention was the basic government of the revolution, the committee of public safety, headed by Robespierre, was founded to enfore the revolutionary ideals, Reign of Terror occurred when Robespierre killed off any suspected "counter-revolutionaries", which numbered in the thousands, the Thermidorian Reaction was when the people revolted due to an excess of violence from the Reign of Terror

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

The Directory, comprised of only 5 people, ruled France after the Revolution, France became an Oligarchy


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 re-introduced Catholicism in France, Napleonic Code was enlightened because it was religiously tolerant, and gave more voting opportunites, and removed hereditary titles, the Continental System was an effort to prevent all trade with Britain in order to hurt it economically, 3 main parts of his empire was the French empire, the dependent states, and the allied states, Peninsular War fought in Spain when he tried to enforce the Continental System, Invaded Russia but the harsh winter killed off most of his men and Russians burned Moscow so he couldn't get it, Hundred Days are when Napoleon came back into power, but he lost at the Battle of Waterloo and was sentenced to exhile at St. Helena


1814 - 1824

Louis XVI was his older brother, and he made the Charter of 1814, which created the legislative assembly that allowed officials to be elected, and freedom of press

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Met to discuss what to do with Europe after fall of Napoleon, 3 goals were to restore old monarchies, balance of power, and reparations, France's representative was Talleyrand, France was treated fairly

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Charles X was conservative, made the July Ordinances which suspended the Constitution, and this made people angry, leading to the July Revolutions

July Revolutions

Jan. 1830 - Feb. 1830

Revolts against Charles X, the people barricaded themselves in the streets in protest, the middle class mostly revolted

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Called the Citizen King, and his reign was known as the "Orlean Monarchy" , different because he doubled the amount of voters, ignored the demands of the urban workers and that caused the 1848 Revolution

February Revolt

Feb. 1, 1848 - Feb. 2, 1848

Against Prime Minister Guizot, Provisional Government took over

Provisional Governent

March 1848 - May 1848

Louis Blanc wanted National Workshop (full employment for citizens), didn't work because there wasn't enough money and jobs, and all the workshops had to be closed, and then there were more riots

June Days

June 1, 1848 - June 4, 1848

Workers rioting because of the closing of the workshops, Republican Government took over

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

Republican government, all males can vote, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, was heavily influenced by Socialism



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850

Holy Roman Empire


Jan. 1465 - Feb. 1465

Created the printing press, hugely significant for all of Europe


Jan 1517 - Feb 1517

Believed in Salvation through faith alone, priesthood of all believers was a doctrine that stated we are equal under God, and he was a political conservative

Charles V

1519 - 1556

nicknamed the Universal Monarch, inherited Spain from his parents, gave Spanish holdings to his son, and gave everything else to his brother

German Peasant's Revolt

Jan 1525 - Feb 1525

They used Luther because they believed the Priesthood of all Believers meant they should be politically equal, Luther responded with his book The Murderous and Thieving Horde, saying that they should be crushed swiftly

Diet of Worms

Jan. 1525 - Feb. 1525

It was a meeting held by Charles V to try and get Luther to recant his 95 theses, but he refused.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

met to reform the church, it was fairly successful because it fixed some of the corruption

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Catholics versus Protestants, Catholics won

Peace of Augsburg

Jan 1555 - Feb 1555

Cuis regio, euius religio " His realm, his religion"

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

initially Hapsburgs vs Protestants, started with Defenestration of Prague, France entered when Richelieu sent troops

Peace of Westphalia

Jan 1648 - Feb 1648

religious settlement that allowed Lutherans and Calvinists to worship, Netherlands become independent

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals were to balance power, restore things, and war reparations, Partition of Poland divided it, Concert of Europe was a group of countries that worked together to make decisions


Robot- work days that were required

Vienna as the Center for European Music

1550 - 1800

Austria was the center of music during the Enlightenment

Battle of Vienna

Jan 1683 - Feb 1683

Suleiman tried to take over Vienna, Austria, King of Poland Sobieski saved the day

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which ensured that his throne would always be hereditary

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Doubled the number of troops, reorganized taxes, lessened the Robot

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussian King Frederick invaded Silesia in Austria, Prussia won Silesia

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia were on continent fighting over territory, off continent austria’s allies France and Russia vs Prussia but Prussia and Britain win, Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes in europe off continent but Britain gets France’s colonies in North America

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

His mother was Maria Theresa, he was considered an Enlightened Despot for his reforms like freeing serfs and religious toleration

Johann Herder

1780 - 1790

German romantic philosopher, his theories about German Nationalism later influenced Friedrich Hegel

Gross deutsch vs kleine deutsch

Jan 1800 - Dec 1800

Debate over the best way to unify Germany


1821 - 1848

Metternich System also Congress System, was a balance of power between several countries following the formation of the Congress of Vienna, Carlsbad decrees were forms of restriction in the Confederation of the Rhine, such as censorship of press and the removal of liberal education professors, Concert of Europe is the balance of power in Europe after Napoleon, hated liberalism and nationalism

George Fredrick Hegel (Published Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences)

Jan 1830 - Feb 1830

Believed that when conflict arises, there is a conversion of government to the opposite of what it was before

Frankfurt Assembly

Jan 1848 - Feb 1848

They wanted a unified German empire, offered the crown to Frederick William IV, he rejected it because it was offered to him by elected officials of the people and not rulers

1848 Revolts

Jan. 1848 - Feb. 1848

People wanted liberal government, Franz Joseph ends revolts and reasserts conservative government of the ancient regime


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Nicknamed "soldier king" because he accumulated a large army and was obsessed with military (with tall soldiers)

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

religious toleration, freedom of press, abolished torture, after Pragmatic Sanction invaded Silesia to take from Austria


Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence, Italy

Political Organization of Italy

1450 - 1500

Italy wasn't unified, existed as small city states and territories


1450 - 1500

Intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on Greek and Latin philosophies as well as classical texts, Humanists focused on humans themselves, on secular aspects of life and the human experience

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1470

Medici's ruled, they were powerful bankers that controlled most of Italy

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Pope Alexander VI's son, Machiavelli admired him because he almost succeeded in unifying Italy

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruler of the Florentine Republic, donated a lot of money to art for the Renaissance, was known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, maintained peace between the other Italian states

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

Dominican Friar who spoke badly about the Medicis, got the people to revolt, but was then declared crazy and killed

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Took place in Rome, Italy

Machiavelli (Publishes The Prince)

Jan. 1513 - Feb. 1513

About how a ruler can be successful, discussed being ruthless and doing whatever necessary to stay in power, focused on having strong military

End of Italian Renaissance

Jan. 1527 - Feb. 1527

Charles V invades Rome

Castiglione (Publishes Book of the Courtier)

Jan. 1528 - Feb. 1528

Written about the perfect "renaissance man", who could do just about everything, perfect example would be Da Vinci

Galileo (Pub. Dialogue Concerning the Two World Systems)

Jan. 1632 - Feb. 1632

About Copernicus' theories regarding planets, was censored by Pope and Galileo was tried for publishing it

Cesare Beccaria (On Crime and Punishment)

Jan. 1764 - Feb. 1764

No more torture, law should be humane and rational, crime and punishment should be proportional


1800 - 1850

The attempt to unify Italy, 3 groups that wanted it were Mazzini's group, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Austria took control of most of Northern Italy, it wasn't unified

Giuseppe Mazzini

Jan. 1848 - Feb. 1848

Revolutionary leader who started Young Italy, wanted democracy

1848 Unification

Jan. 1848 - Dec. 1848

Unsuccessful because the revolution was divided into three groups