The Big Euro Timeline of Everything

Eras

Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600

Reformation

1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800

Absolutism

1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850

France

Concordat of Bologna

1516

France stays Catholic and recognize the Pope's power over councils. Done by Francis 1.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Ruled as regent for her sons, she was unsuccessful as a politique due to massacring the Huguenots in the St. Bartholemew's Day Masacre.

St. Bartholomew's Dat Massacre

1572

Catherine de Medici ordered the Huguenot's who were gathered in Paris for Henry of Navarre's wedding to be slaughtered. The Pope laughed and gave the messenger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass". He converted from being a Huguenot to Catholicism to be king. He issued the Edict of Nantes, allowing Huguenots to practice their religion (in Huguenot Pockets). A politique because he had religious tolerance for Huguenots. He was killed by a religious zealot.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sends troops to lessen the power of the Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."

:Louis XIII/ Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Richelieu had all of the power. The French Academy put out the first French dictionary that helped to standardize the French language. He took away nobles castles. He destroyed the walls surrounding the Hugeunot cities.He sent troops into the 30 Years War to defeat the Hapsburgs.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state." He spent a ton of money on Versailles. He revoked the Edict of Nantes which angered the Huguenots who left and France lost a huge tax base. He completely controlled the nobles, made them live in Versailles and want to do things for him.

war of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

King Carlos II of Spain wills the throne to France (Philip of Anjou). Treaty of Utrecht says that Spain and France can never unite. France lost.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Mistress was Madame Pompadour. Roccoco was the art style in his rule.

Montesquieu ( Spirit of Laws)

1748

Believed government should have separate branches with checks and balances. Government was effected by climate.

seven years war

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia on continent.
Off the continent, Austria's allies (France and Russia) vs. Prussia's allies (Britain) who won.

Voltaire (Candide)

1759

"I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it." About free speech, totally for it! "Crush the thing"- Hated the Catholic Church.

Rousseau (Social Contract)

1762

Government should be ruled by the general will of the people.

Rousseau (Emile)

1762

Children should learn from experience, against the Enlightenment because he wants people to act on impulse and emotion rather than logic and reason.

Treaty of Paris

1763

No major changes on the European continent, off the continent, Britain got all of France's colonies.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

He was a push over married to Marie Antoinette. The french hayed her because she spent so much money and lived in luxury while the people had very little. He was beheaded for treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

The French helped to get revenge on Britain. Their involvement destroyed the French economy.

National assembly/ legislative assembly

1789 - 1791

Abbé Sieges advocated for more power for the third estate. Signats was paper currency backed by church lands. Civil constitution of the clergy put the clergy under the control of the government. Constitution of 1791 made France a constitutional monarchy.

1st French republic

1792 - 1795

National convention was led by Robespierre and the committee of public safety which was the cause of the reign of Terror. The reign of terror executed many members of the third estate as conspirators against the revolution. Thermadorian reaction had Robespierre executed for acts against the revolution.

oligarchy/ directory

1795 - 1799

Really corrupt

Napoleon

1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 made it possible to openly practice Catholicism France is mostly Catholic. The Napoleonic code was enlightened because it made all land owning men equal. The contiental system was economic warfare against Britain.

His empire consisted of France proper, annexed states, and allied states. When he invaded Russia his troops were decimated by the Russian winter.

Peninsular war

1808 - 1812

Napoleon invaded Spain and the Spanish attacked the FrenchTroops using guerilla warfare tactics. France didn't fare so well.

Louis XVIII

1814 - 1824

He was Louis XVI's youngest brother. He passed the Charter of 1814 which kept the Napoleonic code, and Napoleon's religious arrangements and added the Chamber of Deputies (elected legislative body)

Congress if Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals: return legitimate rulers to the throne, balance if power, war reparations.
France was represented by Talleyrand and was not given much power at first but then became a key player in the COV.

hundred days and Waterloo

1815

Napoleon returns to France from exile in St. Helena and takes over, welcomed by the French people. Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon was defeated and exiled to Elba.

Charkes X

1824 - 1830

Conservative, the July Ordinances: dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, decreased the number of voters, and censored and controlled the press. The people rebelled against these measures.

July Revolutions

1830

Against Charles X, the French people revolted and formed barricades in the streets of Paris.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

He was called the citizen king. Called the Orleans Monarchy. He supposedly dressed like the people. He ignored the demands of the urban workers and caused the Rebellions of 1848.

Provisional Government

1848

(March-May) Louis Blanc was a Utopian socialist who wanted national workshops (government provides full employment). They didn't work out; not enough jobs or money, government basically handed out checks.

February Revolt

1848

Rebellion against King Louis Philipe and Prime Minister Guizot, a Provisional Coalition took over.

June Days

1848

The national workshops had to close, claimed the government had betrayed the people, the people wanted a redistribution of wealth. The government that came out of this was a Republic (#2)

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

They had a Republic with a unicameral legislature, all males had the right to vote, the president was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. Influenced by the economic philosophy of socialism.

Holy Roman Empire

Gutenberg

1465

He invented the printing press.

Luther

1517

Believed in Salvation through Faith, and the Priesthood of all believers (everyone equal in the eyes of God), all you need was the Bible, not the Church, he did not believe in revolting against the government.

Charles V

1519 - 1556


He was known as the Universal Monarch.
He inherited Spain from his mother and everything else from his father.
When he retired to a monastery, he split his lands, Spain to his son Philip II, and HRE to his brother Ferdinand.

Diet of Worms

1521

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V Luther to recant his 95 Thesis. Luther refused and was forced to flee.

German Peasants Revolt

1525

They used his idea that everyone was equal in the eyes of God, to say that they should be equal politically as well. Luther responded with writing the Angry and Thieving Horde, saying he disagreed with the revolt and that the peasants should be loyal to Charles V.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Worked to make the Church less corrupt. It was pretty successful.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestant Trade League vs. Catholic Princes. Ended in the Peace of Augsburg (princes could chose their religion between Lutheranism or Catholicism)

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Allowed princes to pick the religion for their region (Lutheranism or Catholicism), Cuius regio, ehius religio. His realm, his religion.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Protestants vs. Catholics, then everyone vs. Hapsburgs. Started with the Defenestration of Prague, France wanted to curb the power of the Hapsburgs.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Allowed Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism
Recognized the independence of the Dutch

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 Goals: restore legitimate rulers, balance power in Europe, and compensation for war loss
Poland was divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia
Concert of Europe: countries continuously met to make sure balance of power was maintained

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Austria

Battle of Vienna

1683

The Ottomans invaded, Polish Jan Sabeski saved the day

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction: made it so his daughter, Maria Theresa could rule (inherit the throne as a woman)

Robot

1715

Labor Tax (working on roads and things, mandatory labor)

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Reduced the Robot, better treatment of serfs

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria vs. Prussia, Austria won, Prussia got Silesia

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia on continent.
Off the continent, Austria’s allies (France and Russia) vs. Prussia’s allies (Britain) who won.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

His mother was Maria Theresa, he was tolerant of other religions (yes, even Jews), he freed the serfs.

Vienna as the center for European Music

1780

During the Enlightenment, Vienna was the center for music.

Metternich

1821 - 1848

In office from 1821 – 1848, 1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821–1835) & Ferdinand I (1835–
1848.
The Metternich System squashed any revolts, and many liberties of the people.
The Carlsbad Decrees censored the press and liberal ideas especially in the universities.
He hated nationalism and liberalsim.

1848 Revolts

1848

The people wanted a unified Germany, Franz Joseph reasserted the Ancient Regime and Hapsburg dominance after Metternich and the king flee to England.

Prussia

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

He was the soldier king because he made Prussia a military power, loved tall soldiers.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

His reforms included education and construction of roads.
He broke the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Maria Theresa in Austria to gain Silesia.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria vs. Prussia, Austria won and ceded Silesia to Prussia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia on continent.
Off the continent, Austria’s allies (France and Russia) vs. Prussia’s allies (Britain) who won.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

He was a preacher and author who encouraged nationalism and patriototism,he supported the French Revolution. He was an early Romantic (storm and stress "strum and drang"

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate

1820

Gross deutsch: wanted German unification with Austria
kleine deutsch : wanted German unification without Austria

George Friederick Hegel

1830

pub. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences
History progresses by starting with a Thesis, synthesis then occurs and an antithesis forms. when the antithesis becomes the accepted thesis, the cycle starts again.

Frankfurt Assembly

1848

Wanted an elected Parliament and to unify the states as a German Empire.
They offered the crown to Frederick William II who rejected it as a "crown from the gutter" because it was offered to him by elected representatives rather than princes.

Italy

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

The Early Renaissance begins in Florence and moves to Rome for the high point.

Political organization of Itlay

1450

It was organized into city states.

Humanism

1450

Emphasized human talents/ celebrated humanity/ emphasized the arts.

Prestige of Florence

1460

The Medicis ruled and had power power because they were wealthy bankers.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

He was the illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI, Machiavelli admired him because he wanted to unite Italy (FAILED)

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1498

Huge patron of the arts

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He ran the Medici family out of Florence, he burned books, because the Medicis were gone, the arts suffered due to lost patronage, EXECUTED

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Occurred in Rome (support of the Popes)

End of Italian Renaissance

1527

The invasion of Charles V and the HRE ended the Renaissance.

Castiglione (Book of the Courtier)

1528

This book described the ideal Renaissance man. Chivalry, religious, into the arts.

Machiavelli (The Prince)

1528

Monarchs should not be afraid to make unpopular decisions, they should not be afraid to make the people fear them (New Monarchs) enforce their rule.

Galileo (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems)

1632

He proved that the sun was the center of the universe (proved Copernicus right) it was a theory not a fact. He was forced to recant.

Cesare Beccaria (On Crime and Punishment)

1764

No torture or capital punishment, prisoners should be treated fairly (some rights)

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals: compensation for war loses, return legitimate rulers to the throne, balance of power
Parts of Italy were given to Austria

Risorgimento

1840

This was a movement for unification (started by the Carbonari)
The three groups were: Young Italy (Guiseppi Mazzini) wanted democracy, Sardinians wanted constitutional monarchy, and Neo Guelfs wanted a Catholic theocracy

Giuseppe Mazzini

1848

He led a revolution in 1848, his group was the Young Italy and they wanted democracy.

1848

1848

These revolutions were never successful because the three groups were competing and never worked together to throw out Austria and the Bourbons.