Euro Timeline



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution / Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


Francis I. Said France stays Catholic as long as pope's power is recognized over councils.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Rules for her incompetent sons. Power of a regent. She was not a successful Politique because of St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


By Catherine de Medici. Huguenots were killed in Paris during Henry of Nevarre's wedding. The pope paid the messenger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass." Changed to Catholicism to become king. Edict of Nantes allowed Huguenots to worship in France. Politique because of religious tolerance. He was stabbed.

Louis XIII / Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Richelieu does most of the stuff. Richelieu started the French Academy and standardized French. Richelieu did not like the nobles, took away their castles, and limited them. He viewed the Hapsburgs as a threat; sent troops against them in 30 years war. Huguenots were also viewed as a threat to Catholicism, and were kept together. Louis partied.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

"By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe." Richelieu sends troops to the Hapsburgs to weaken them because they were viewed as one of the three biggest dangers to France.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state." He revoked the Edict of Nantes. Drove out many Jews and Huguenots, losing a large tax base. He was an absolute monarch. Spent money on frivolous things, such as Versailles. He had the nobles eating out of the palm of his hand, forcing them to live in Versailles. Many people were poor and starving.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Spanish King Carlos II leaves Spain to France. Wanted Spance. Settled by Treaty of Utrecht that said no Spance; France and Spain cannot unite. Both ruled by Bourbons. France lost.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Famous mistress was Madame de Pompadour. Art style was rococo.



Published Spirit of Laws. Believed that the government should be divided into three branches of government and checks and balances.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia. On continent fighting over territory. Off Continent- Austria's allies (France and Russia) vs. Prussia's allies (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. Treaty of Paris (1763)- no major changes in Europe. Off Continent, Britain gets France's colonies in North America.



Published Social Contract. Said government should be ruled by the General Will of the people. Published Emile. Said children should learn to teach themselves. It was based more on impulse vs. the enlightenment ideals of logic and reason.



Published Candide. He did not like the church ("Crush the thing"). He was a strong advocate of freedom of speech (I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it").

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Louis XVI was nice but not a good ruler. He was thought to be rather wishy-washy. His wife was Marie Antoinette, and the French hated her because she spent a lot of money while everyone else was starving. He was executed during the French Revolution for treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

The French helped the Americans as a way to get revenge on Britain. The supporting of the American Revolution greatly weakened the French economy and inspired the French to bring about change.

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abbe Sieyes wrote "What is the Third Estate?" and said that non-nobles were the nation and should make decisions. Assignats were paper currency backed by the church. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy put the church under control of the French government, which was a mistake because it turned many religious people from the revolution. The Constitution of 1791 made France a constitutional monarchy.

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

The National Convention was the legislative assembly that held executive power during the first republic. It was headed by Robespierre. Committee of Public Safety was a 12 man council dominated by Robespierre, that ran the Reign of Terror. The Reign of Terror time period were Robespierre led the revolution and killed many peasants. The Thermidorian Reaction was the backlash against Robespierre that ended him and the reign of terror.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

The Directory consists of 5 counsels. They served as the executives. Oligarchies tend to benefit only a small amount of the population. The Directory was disliked as it invested too much in the military instead of feeding the people of France.


1799 - 1815

The Concordat of 1801 said that "Catholicism is the religion of most Frenchman"; the pope wanted something more definitive though. The Napoleonic Code of 1804 was enlightened because it guaranteed individual rights except for women and black people. It also promised that everyone would be taxed equally. The Continental System was economic warfare against Britain; it disallowed areas controlled by Napoleon to trade with Britain because he couldn't defeat them with the military. The three parts of his empire were the French Empire, the Allied States, and the Dependant States. The Peninsular War was his war in Spain, which he lost due to guerrilla warfare. He tried to invade Russia for not following the Continental System in 1812, but Russia utilized the Scorched Earth Policy which removes anything useful to the invaders from the land. Napoleons troops could not withstand the Russian winter. The Hundred Days were the days that Napoleon came back into power after being exiled. The Battle of Waterloo was Napoleon's defeat that made him gone for good.


1814 - 1824

Louis XVIII was the younger brother of Louis XVI. The Charter of 1814 made a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament. Many revolutionary ideas were incorporated such as civil liberties and religious tolerance, although Catholicism was the official religion of the state. Added an elected legislative body.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

The three goals were balance of power, legitimacy, and compensation. Frances representative was Talleyrand. France did not get any of the new land that Napoleon had conquered, and they had to pay some reparations.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Very conservative, tried to restore ancien regime. Jury Ordinances got rid of the elected legislature, decreased number of voters, and controlled all of the presses. The French were mad and started to revolt again.

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. French people revolted and barricaded the streets. Charles X fled to England.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Called the Citizen King and his reign was known as the Orlean Monarchy. He dressed like the people. He ignored the demands of the urban worker and that caused the people rebellion.

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Made France a republic. All males had the right to vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected president. Heavily influenced by socialism.

February Revolt


Against Louis Philippe. Provisional Government took over.

June Days


Four days in June. People were rioting after all the national workshops closed. They felt betrayed and wanted socialism. The people passed another constitution making a republic.

Provisional Government


Louis Blanc, a utopian socialist, wanted national workshops to provide full employment. Too bad there was not enough money or jobs for people, so they just printed out paychecks. The workshops failed. People got mad.

Holy Roman Empire



Invented the printing press.



Believed in salvation through faith, which meant you only had to believe. Priesthood of all believers. Didnt believe in the big church because you only needed the Bible. Did not believe in revolting against the government.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

He was called the Universal Monarch. He inherited Spain from his mom and everything else from his dad. When he retired to a monastery, he split his land- Spain to his son (Phillip II) and HRE to his brother (Ferdinand).

Diet of Worms


They wanted Luther to recant his 95 Thesis. He refused and was forced to flee.

German Peasants Revolt


They used Luther and his idea that everyone was equal in the eyes of God to say that they should be equal politically. He wrote the Angry and Thieving Horde is response. He disagreed with the revolts against the government. Peasants should be loyal to King Charles V.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Tried to fix the corruption of the Church. It was pretty successful.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestant Trade League vs. Catholic Princes. Ended in the Peace of Augsburg (princes could choose the religion of their states- Lutheranism or Catholicism).

Peace of Augsburg


Allowed princes to choose religion of their states- Lutheranism or Catholicism. "Cuius regio, ehius religio." "His realm, his religion."

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Protestants vs. Catholics. Everyone vs. Hapsburgs. Started with the Defenestration of Prague. France joined because they wanted to lessen the power of the Hapsburgs.

Peace of Westphalia


Allowed Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism. Recognized the independence of the Dutch.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Three goals: restore legitimate rulers, balance power, compensation for war losses. Poland was divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia. Concert of Europe was when they continued to meet after the Congress of Vienna.


Battle of Vienna


The Ottomans attacked. Polish Jans Sabeski saved the day.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction allowed Maria Theresa to rule.



Robot was a labor tax.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Enlightened reforms such as reducing the robot and better treatment of serfs.

War of Austian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria vs. Prussia. Austria won. Silesia went to Prussia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia. On continent fighting over territory. Off Continent- Austria’s allies (France and Russia) vs. Prussia’s allies (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. Treaty of Paris (1763)- no major changes in Europe. Off Continent, Britain gets France’s colonies in North America.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Son of Maria Theresa. Tolerant to Jews, eliminated the robot, abolished serfdom.

Vienna as center for European music



1821 - 1848

in office from 1821 – 1848, 1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821–1835) & Ferdinand I (1835–
The Metternich System was a bunch of repressive measures taken to maintain the political arrangement after Napoleon's fall. The Carlsbad Decrees were a series of resolutions put into place to prevent uprisings and liberals from revolting. The Concert of Europe was the congress system of Europe in place for balance of power. He hated the ideals of the French Revolution (equality, democracy) and liberalism. Basically hated democracy and nationalism.

1848 Revolts


People wanted liberal governments and independence. Franz Joseph ends it and becomes emperor. Does awful things to stop revolts. Goes back to Ancien Regime, very conservative, Hapsburg dominance.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Called The Soldier King because he loved military display. Had the Potsdam Giants.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria vs. Prussia. Austria won. Silesia went to Prussia.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Enlightened reforms such as religious freedom, freedom of press, protection against the law, education rules. The Pragmatic Sanction was broken when he took Silsea.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia. On continent fighting over territory. Off Continent- Austria’s allies (France and Russia) vs. Prussia’s allies (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. Treaty of Paris (1763)- no major changes in Europe. Off Continent, Britain gets France’s colonies in North America.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1799

A German philosopher. Believed in common culture instead of political boundries.

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate


Debate about how to unite Germany. (include or not to include austria)

George Frederick Hegel


Published Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences. Believed that the course of history was preplanned and could not be changed.
an early German romantic (into the "storm and stress" aka strum and drang movement) and all about German Nationalism

Frankfurt Assembly


Wanted a constitutional monarchy. Offered the crown to Frederick William IV. He refused because he thought the constitution was too liberal.


Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence.

Political organization of Italy


Organized in city-states.

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1469

The Medici family ruled. Powerful because they were very wealthy.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

The son of Pope Alexander VI. Inspiration of Machiavelli because he tried to unite italy

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruled Florence. Big patron of the arts.

Friar Savonrola

1494 - 1498

He got the Medicis to leave Florence. He burned books. The arts suffered due to the leaving of the Medicis.



Humanism is separation of man. Emphasized human talents.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Happened in Rome.



Published The Prince. Taught that rulers should be make their subjects fear them. They should be ruthless. "Better to be feared than loved"

End of Italian Renaissance


Charles V of the HRE invaded.



Wrote The Courtier. Taught how to be a true Renaissance man. Chivalry, religion, arts.



Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Said that it was a fact that the sun was the center of the universe (proving Copernicus). He was forced to recant; people didnt take his findings well.

Cesare Beccaria


On Crime and Punishment. No torture or capital punishment. Prisoners should be treated humanely.



Wanted unification of Italy. Young Italy (wanted democracy), Sardinians (want constitutional monarchy), Neo Guelfs (wanted Catholic theocracy)

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Three goals: balance of power, legitimate rulers, war reparations

Giuseppi Mazzini


The heart of Italian unification. His group was Young Italy. He wanted a democracy in Italy.



The unification movements in 1848 were unsuccessful because people would not work together.