"The Land of Peace and Acceptance" or "Europe"

All Europeans live in peaceful harmony all the time.



01/01/1400 - 12/31/1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction/ Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


Gave French state power in the Catholic church to appoint bishops and things and whatnot. Whatever.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She ruled for her incompetent sons. She was awful at being a politique because she murdered Huguenots a lot and was kind of a witch.

St. Batholomew's Day


Catherine ordered Huguenots to be slaughtered. Pope gave the messenger a bag of gold because he was just so excited about the mass murder based on religous differences.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass." He switched from Calvinism to Catholocism to survive. Edict of Nantes allowed Hugues to worship. Politique because EofN and toleration of different beliefs. Killed by a Catholic zealot.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Turned power to Riche

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Riche sends troops against Hapsburgs because they have faaar too much powers. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."


1624 - 1642

Louis turned power over to him. French Academy fostered sciences and study. Rich hated nobles and outlawed their lavish lifestyles. Fought against les Hapsburgs. Modified EofNantes

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

I am the state. Bad at economics on Versallies and was bad at taxes, bad at religion because repeal edict of nantes, forced nobles to live in Versallies, kept Hugenot pockets (delicious in the microwave at 2:00, give or take. Be sure to unwrap and cover in paper towel and let sit for one minute after cooking.)

War of Spanish Succesion

1702 - 1713

Fought over the feared possible unification of the Kingdoms of Spain and France under one Bourbon monarch.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madame Pomadour. Rococo.

Voltaire (Candide)


He will fight for your right to speech but also crush the thing; the thing is the church in case you didn't know that, if you didn't know that WHY WHY DIDN'T YOU KNOW THAT THE THING IS THE CHURCH DUH GUYS, DUH, OF COURSE THE THING IS THE CHURCH WHO WOULDN'T KNOW THAT COME ON GET IT TOGETHER.

Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws)


government should be seperated into three branches

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Caused by antagonism between Great Britain and Bourbons (France and Spain). France lost many of its colonial holdings in North America.

Rousseau (Social Contract)


General will - decisions should be based on the majority will of the people. Emile - education should be practical; teachers role is solely to protect students from bodily harm. Against Enlightenment because he believes on decisions based on impulse emotion as opposed to logic and reason.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Tried to reform kind of, but was blocked by nobles; was conservative and kind of an awful king. Marie Antoinette was the symbol of the monarchy and squandered money on nothing, basically. He was executed for treason during the French revolution.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped Americans to get back at Britain. Put France into a near-insurmountable financial crisis.

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes - Writer for the revolution; wrote What is the Third Estate?.
Assignants - French money backed by church lands
Civil Constitution of the Clergy - Put the French Roman Catholic Church under the control of the French government'
Constitution of 1791- made France a constitutional monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention - was basically awful at any and all types of governing
Committee of Public Safety - slaughtered suspected conspirators
Reign of Terror - under Robespierre- extreme police state
Thermidorian - people rise up against Reign of Terror and COPS

Directory Oligarchy

1795 - 1799


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 - Gave the church back much of its civil status
Napoleonic Code - created much quality for the peoples
Continental System - economic system aimed at harming Britain as much as possible
Peninsular War - "Spanish Ulcer," guerilla warfare
Invasion of Russia - Scorched earth policy, horrible failure
Hundred Days - Nap was welcomed back to france for 100 days but then was executed... again
Waterloo - got rid of Napolean


1814 - 1824

Brother of Louis XVI
Charter of 1814 established bicameral legislature and gave Louis less power

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Goals - balance of power, compensation, reinstatement of governments before Nap.
French rep. - Talleyrand
At first France was treated pretty good, but after 100 days the other powers were much harder on her.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Very conservative
July Ordinances severely limited the rights of the French people
People revolted... again.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Called the "citizen king"
July Monarchy
Ignored the demands of the middle class and caused the february rebellion

July Revolutions

july 1 1830

Against Charles X, barriers were erected in the streets, middle class revolted

February Revolt

February 1 1848

Overthrew bourbons and instituted Second French Republic

Provisional Government

March 1 1848

Socialism -- badly because they didn't do it right, really.

June Days

June 1 1848

In response to plans to close the National Workshops. Second French Empire Happened

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

Universal suffrage -- Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was President. Socialist

Holy Roman Empire

Dese are dah states dat become gernmania ventually


1 jan 1465

He did the printing press of printing.


1 jan 1517

Salvation through faith alone
All believers are equal -- forgiveness of sins can be given to everyone
Political conservative

Charles V

1519 - 1556

"Universal Monarch"
Inherited Spain from his parents, gave Spanish holding to son, gave everything else to his brother.

German Peasant Revolt

1 jan 1525

They used the Priesthood of all Believers to justify political equality.
Luther didn't like them because he believes in respect for authority.

Diet of Worms

1 jan 1525

A meeting to try to get Luth to recant called by Charles V. Luther responded by saying.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Council reformed the Catholic church. Reformed some of the corruption.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestants fought the Catholics; catholics win; peace of augsburg

Peace of Augsburg

jan 1 1555

Cuius regio, euius religio.
"His realm, his religion."

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

started with the Defrenestration of Prague
Catholics v. Protestants
France entered wanted to decrese Hapsburgian power.

Peace of Westphalia

jan 1 1648

ends 30 years war, allowed for Calvinism, Netherlands is recognized as a thing

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1 jan 1815 - 31 dec 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of power, restoration of things, compensation.
Partition of Poland happened.
Concert of Europe - everyone decided to not shoot each other and to talk about thier problems.


Robot - required work days for people.

Vienna is a center for European music


Battle of Vienna


Ottomans attacked Austria, king of Poland came and helped out

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic sanction allowed Maria Theresa to remain in control of lands.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria and GB v. Spain and Prussia over Maria Theresa's alleged inability to succeed in Austria. Austria wins and keeps everything except Silesia, which goes to Prussia

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Financial and educational reforms, reorganized military,

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Hohenzollerns v. Hapsburgs; GB and friends win

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Mother - Maria Theresa
Gave freedom to serfs


1821 - 1848

concert of europe - powers would try to talk to each other instead of shooting each other.

1848 Revolts


People wanted pan-Germanism and political freedom. It was basically a failure


It's a place.

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Soldier King - he's pretty much at war all the time. Which, you know, whatever, but... like, lots of murder happened. Which sucks.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Modernized bureaucracy and promoted religious freedom. Violated pragmatic sanctions like a stupid idiot.

Johan Herder


German critic; Furthered the German enlightenment

Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences


by George Hegel
History always evens itself out with a thesis and antithesis.


Italy organized into loosely connected and competitive city-states.

Early Ressiance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence

Prestige of Florence


The Medicis rules -- Powerful because of their patronage of the arts.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Tried to unite Italy. He was very state-power orientated; he would do whatever necessary to increase the power of the state

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruled florence and patroned the arts.

Friar Savanarola

1494 - 1498

Dominicna monk who said that Medici was immoral; people believed him and kicked out Medici, but then they burned him on account of it was a terrible to kick out Medici.

High Rennasaince

1500 - 1527

In Rome

The Prince


Basically says to increase state power as much as possible and to do the best thing possible for the state.

End of Italian Renaissance


Invasion of Charles V ended it. Stupid Il Moro let him in.

Courtier by Castiglione


Basically says that the Rennaiance man should be all around just a quality guy.



Emergence of individualistic ideas and re-emergance of classical literature and idealogies.

Dialogue of Two World Systems - Galileo


Proving the Copernicus was right about heliocentrism. YAYAYAYAY. So we are not the center of the earth, so that's too bad.

On Crime and Punishment -


Wanted to outlaw torture.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of power; reinstatement of original powers; war reperations



Young Italy wanted to unite all of the city states.

Giuseppe Mazzini


Helped to bring about a unified Italy. "Young Italy."

Unification Movements


Too many ideas and too little compromise.