European History till 1800's



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna

January 1, 1516 - December 1, 1516

Between Francis I and Pope Leo X, and France controlled the french church.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She was ruling in place of her incompetent sons, failed at politique because of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

January 1, 1572 - December 1,1572

Massacre of Huguenots at a wedding, and the Pope reacted by giving the messenger a bag of gold

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass", He was a flip flop because he changed from a Huguenot to a Catholic. He was a politique because he allowed Huguenots to practice their religion. He was killed by a radical Catholic zealot.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu because he wants to curb Hapsburg power, "By the time this is over, Frances is the strongest country in Europe."


1624 - 1642

He turned power to Richelieu, French Academy was for matters on the French language, he controlled nobles by banning their luxurious lifestyle, tried to curb Hapsburg power, and removed the fortified Huguenot cities.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state", invested in bad wars, scared the Huguenots, coralled the nobes at Versailles.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

This was about the fear of Spain and France joining their thones, Spain won.

Louis XV

1743 - 1774

Madame de Mompadour was his mistress, Art was Roccoco

Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws)

January 1748 - December 1748

He believed that there should be separation of powers

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia, Austria allied with (French, Russia) vs Prussia's allies (Br.) Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes

Voltaire (Candide)

1759 - December 1759

"I may not agree with what you say, but i'll defend you to the death for you to say it." Hated the catholic church

Rousseau (Social Contract)

1762 - December 1762

People have general will not government, wrote on education "Emile" learned by experience, Against the Enlightenment because he wanted to return back to nature

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Was an incompetent ruler, schlubb, His wife was Marie Antoinette, hated because she spent too much. Gets beheaded in the French Revolution on charges of High Treason

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped the Americans to get back at Britain. France gets further in debt as a result

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes said that the 3rd Estate didn't have any power, Assignats were paper money issued out by the church, Civil Const of the Clergy said France controlled the church, Constriction of 1791-France becomes a Constitutional Monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention kicked out the Girondists
Committee of Public Safety- Ruling committee ruled by Robespierre.
Reign of Terror- paranoid killings made due to fear of enemies of the revolution.
Thermidorian Reaction- Move against the French Revolution ending in Robespierre's death

Directory / Oligarchy

1795 - 1799


1799 - 1815

-Concordat of 1801 made France Catholic again
-Napoleonic Code allowed for other religious minorities to be treated equally.
-Continental System (1806) was a stockade against Great Britain.
-Invasion of Russia ended badly with France losing

Peninsular War

1808 - 1812


1814 - 1824

-Brother of Louis XVI
-Charter of 1814 made him create a Constitution for France

Congress of Vienn

1815 - 1820

-Three goals are compensation, balance of power, and legitimacy
-France's rep. was Charles Talleyrand
-France was treated fairly nice reguarding the french revolution.

Hundred Days

January 1815 - December 1815


January 1815 - February 1815

Charles X

1824 - 1830

-was a Conservative man
-July Ordinances dissolved salons, which made people mad
-People reacted with the July Revolution.

July Revolutions

1830 - december 1830

-Against Charles X
-Thousands of barricades erected for safety
-Raised up by unruly people who wanted salons

Louis Phillipe

1830 - 1848

-Called the Citizen King
-Orleans Monarchy
-Government was controlled by wealthy middle class
-Voters, Abolish Press Censorship, and Flag
-Ignored the needs and demands of the Urban Worker and caused the Revolution of 1848.

February Revolt

Feb, 1848 - March, 1848

-against Louis Phillipe
-Provisional Coalition Government

Provsional Govt.

March 1848 - May 1848

Louis Blanc was a Utopian Socialist
---wanted national workshops and full employment.
-Turned out bad, wasn't enough money and jobs to do.

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

-Republic Government
-All males have the right to vote
-The president was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
-Heavily influenced by Socialism

June Days

June 1848 - July 1848

--Revolt against Louis Blanc closing National Workshops.
--2nd French Republic took over.

Holy Roman Empire


1465 - December 1465

-Printing press spread the hatred of Catholicism


1517 - December 1517

-People are saved through faith
-Everyone is a technically priest, each responsible for learning the religion
-Conservative in politics.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

-"The Universal Monarch"
-Aquired Land from his Spanish and German grandparents
-Gave his land to his son and brother.

Diet of Worms

1521 - December, 1521

-used to make Luther recant
-Luther refused to recant, leads to his arrest warrant.

German Peasants' Revolt

1525 - December 1525

-Peasants used Luther's teaching to justify revolt
-Luther responds negatively to the peasant revolt.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

-Catholic counter-reformation, used to change corrupt things in the church
-Was a success

Schmakaldic War

1546 - 1548

-Protestant trade league vs. Catholic Princes
-Ends with the Peace of Augsburg

Peace of Augsburg

1555 - December 1555

-Says the religion of the land is that of the ruler
-"Cuius regio, eius religio"

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

-Protestants vs Catholics, ends up being France vs Hapsburg
-Started with the Defenestration of Prague
-Richelieu brought in France to oppose Hapsburg

Peace of Westphalia

1648 - December 1648

-Freedom to be Lutheran, Calvinist, or Catholic

-Recognized Netherlands independance

Confederation of Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

-Balance of Power, Legitimacy, Compensation
-Split Poland in Congress
-Concert of Europe led to Balance of Power until WWI.



1450 - 1451

-Labor tax, needed to work certain amount of time

Battle of Vienna

1683 - December 1683

Ottomans attacked Vienna
Polish Man saved the day

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction allowed for Maria Theresa inherit land.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Enlightened Reforms that were Religious reforms, but not towards the Jews.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

-Prussia vs Hapsburg Austria
-Austria won, gained Silesia

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

-His mother was Maria Theresa
-Reforms accepted all religion, eased the persecution of Jews

Seven Years War

1765 - 1790

-Austria, France vs Britain, Prussia, and Russia
-Britain was the only slight victor.


1821 - 1848

-1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821–1835) & Ferdinand I (1835–1848)
-Metternich System split Napoleon's Empire amongst Europe.
-1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821–1835) & Ferdinand I (1835–1848)
-Metternich System split up Napoleon's Empire
-Carlsbad Decree made more press censorship
-Concert of Europe was the band of Major European powers before WWI
-He hated Nationalism and Conservatism

1848 Revolts

1848 - December 1848

-Hungarians wanted liberal govt.
-Czecks want independance
-Austrians want liberal govt
-Italians want independance

-Government got a liberal constitution
-Franz Joseph puts the revolt down


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

-"Soldier King" because he was obsessed with tall beefy soldiers.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

-HRE vs Prussia
-Prussia ends up winning, thus gaining Silesia.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

-Went against Pragmatic Sanction by invading Silesia
-Enlightened Despot due to his ease of persecution of Jews and abolishing of serfdom

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

-Britain France Spain VS Prussia HRE Austria
-Britain side wins

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

-He is an 18th century philosopher
-Led to the beginning of the Sturm und Drang movement.

George Friederick Hegel

1830 - December 1830

-Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences, 1830
-The lower working class will always revolt against the wealthy middle class

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate

1830 - 1831

-Gross wanted to unify all of German areas including Austria
-Kleine wanted to unify all of German areas except Austria

Frankfurt Assembly

1848 - December 1848

-Wanted to unify with Frederick William IV being king of the new areas
-Frederick William IV was offered the crown.
-Frederick declined the offer because it was given by the elected representatives instead of land owning princes.



1450 - 1500

-Humanism is belief that humans can control their own destiny, borrowed from Greece and Rome.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

-Started in Florence

Political organization of Italy

1450 - 1500

Italy composed mainly of small city-states

Prestige of Florence

1460 - December 1460

-The Medici family ruled
-Powerful because it was rich

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

-Son of Alexander VI
-Admired by Machiavelli because he tried to unite Italy.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

-Leader of Italy, Medici Family
-Contributed heavily to patronage of art, which he bought.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

-Radical Dominican monk that opposed Alexander VI
-Also called to oust the Medici's from the land.
-Ended by burning at the stake

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

-High Renaissance started in Rome.

Machiavelli (Tupac, The Prince, pub. 1513)


-Says to be a ruthless leader, "better to be feared than loved."

End of Italian Renaissance


-Charles V sacked Rome



-Book of the Courtier pub. 1528
-Called to be a "Renaissance Man", or a well rounded man



-Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, publ. 1632
-He compared Copernican and Ptolemaic theories, Sun was the center of the System.
-The church called it heresy

Cesare Beccaria


On Crime and Punishment 1764-Condemned torture and the Death Penalty

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

-Balance of Power, Restoring the throne, Reparations

-Remained separated city states, with Austria controlling the North


1820 - 1830

-Movement that called for the Unification of Italy
-Three groups are Neo Guelfs, Young Italy, Sardinians

Unificadtion Movements


-Ended up unsuccessful because the three main groups all wanted different things.

Giuseppe Mazzini


-Italian Politician/Journalist that called for Italy Unification
-Leader of Young Italy
-Wanted a Democratic Italy