1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850

The Reign of King Robert Ethan Gallagher III

April 27 1995 - April 27 2095

France Oh YEAH France

Concordat of Bologna

January 1517 - December 1517

Francis I. Made french kings in charge of clerical matters.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Ruled for her three sons. Unsuccessful in being a politique because of slaughtering the Hugenots.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

January 1572 - December 1572

Massacred the Hugenots. Ordered by Marie de Medici. The pope gave the messenger a gold coin and keeled over laughing.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

France is well worth a mass. Flip flopped between Protestantism and Catholicism. Edict of Nantes allowed the Hugenot pockets to form. A politique because of his religious tolerance and is assassinated by Catholic.

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Child king, controlled by Richelieu

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Louis XIII sends french troops to keep the Hapsburgs out of France. By the time this ends, France is the strongest country in Europe.

Cardinal Richelieu

1624 - 1642

Formed the French Academy to centralize the French Language. Nobles weren't allowed to have castles.
Hugenots lost their organized cities.
Hated the Hapsburgs due to France in the 30 Years War

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Fought alot of empty wars. Made France Catholic again. Controlled the nobles through Versailles. Revoked the Edict of Nantes. Killer shins. Sun King.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Philip of Bourbon was getting the Spanish crown. NO SPANCE.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madame Du Barry. Roccoccocoo art style.

Montesquieu "Spirit of Laws"

January 1748 - December 1748

Separation of powers, branches of the modern government, the climate affects the weather.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia.
Britain vs. France in the colonies.
France lost everything.

Voltaire "Candide"

January 1759 - December 1759

"I disagree with what you say, but i'll defend to the death your right to say it." "Crush the church."

Rousseau Social Contract

January 1762 - December 1762

Teachers should be baby sitters. The government should be at the general will of the public. He advocated instinct and emotion.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

He was a chubby lil tart. Married to Marie Antoinette, known for her sleeping around and spending money. He was beheaded for treason after caught fleeing the country.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped the Americans because they hate Britain. Propelled France into debt,

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes wrote about the power of the Third Estate. Assignants were a monetary item during the revolution. Civil Constitution of the Clergy got rid of the Catholic Church in France, thanks Robes. Constitution of 1791 made it a constitutional monarchy..

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Cnvention ruled by Robespierre's committee of public safety began to execute everyone during the Reign of Terror, Thermidorian Reaction


1795 - 1799

Ruled by a group of men. Select few.


1799 - 1815

The Concordat of 1801 reestablished Catholicism in France. The Napoleonic codes were enlightened in their equality for all men, no matter the birth rank. The Continental System was aimed against the British, and forbid his empire to trade with them. He fought the Peninsular War in spain, brutally. Russia was a fail, many men fell victim to the weather. The Hundred days were when Napoleon was exiled to Elba but then returned. He made his last Stand against Britain at the Battle of Waterloo which he lost.

Louis XIII

1814 - 1824

Charter of 1814 kept the Napoleonic Code and Religious Arrangements but added a legislative body. Way to GO.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Reparation of War. Reestablish the monarchs. Balance of Power.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Worked to restore the Old Regime. July Ordinances: Dissolved Chamber of Deputies. DEcreased the number of voters and controlled all the presses. People revolted.

Louis Phillippe

1830 - 1848

Citizen King. Dressed like the people. Ignored the demands of the urban worker. Caused February rebellion.

July Revolution

January 1830 - DEcember 1830

LEs Miserables. Barricades in the street protesting the July revolted against Charles X. Workers and middle class alike.

February Revolt

January 1848 - May 1848

Against policies of the monarch which ignored the demands of the urban worker. A provisional government took over (because that worked so well before)

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Republic. All males could vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was the president of the legislative party. Influenced by socialism.

Provisional Government

MArch 1848 - May 1848

Louis Blanc was a eutopian socialist. He wanted national workshops. Things didn't happen when people stopped getting paid.

June Days

June 1848 - July 1848

Rioting against the National Workshops. Second republic established.

Holy Roman Empire


January 1465 - May 1500

The printed word exploded and ideas spread quickly.


January 1517 - May 1517

Salvation through faith alone. Detested the extravagantly corrupt nature of the Catholic Church. Believed that all believers were united in their faith. Believed in hierarchy in society but NOT in the church.

Diet of Worms

January 1521 - May 1521

Luther was put on trial by the papacy for his heretic statements against the church and it's indulgences. He did not recant and ran away!

German Peasants Revolt

May 1525 - December 1525

German peasants revolted against their princes in response to Luther's revolutionary movements within the realm of religion. Luther responded with much scorn to these barbarians.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Officials met to reform the Catholic church in response to the loss of followers and money throughout the Protestant Reformation.

Shmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1548

Protestant princes versus Catholic princes. Ended in the Peace of Augsburg.

Peace of Augsburg

January 1555 - May 1555

Gave each prince the option to decide the religion of his realm. Cuius regio, euius religio. "His realm, his religion."

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Began as a religious war between Protestants vs Catholics than became Hapsburgs vs everyone else. Defenestration of Prauge. Cardinal Richellieu sent troops to help out the Swedes vs Hapsburgs, important in showing that it even Catholic countries began to fight other Catholic countries.

Peace of Westphalia

January 1648 - May 1648

Dutch republic recognized, Calvinists are now allowed.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Under nappy.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Legitimize the royal family. Balance of power. Compensation of War Losses. Recognized as the Duchy of Warsaw (Poland). Concert of Europe was a system of balance of power established after 1815.



1600 - 1601

Labor tax.

Battle of Vienna

January 1683 - May 1683

Turks vs Hapsburg forces. Polish man Jan Soviesky saved the day! Vienna remains!

Vienna (Europe's Classical HUB)

1700 - 1800

Center of music in this time.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issued the pragmatic sanction which allowed for Marie Theresa to inherit the Hapsburg dynasty. Girls just wanna inherit an empire! <3

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia vs. Austria. All major European powers were involved, but Austria gave Silesia to Prussia.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Under her, the German speaking world centralizes in Vienna. Reduced power of the nobles, increased taxes. Also created an income and poll tax.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria and allies vs Prussia. Prussia won and became a major European power as a result of it's military force.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Son of Maria Theresa. Promoted religious tolerance, dissolved monasteries, abolished serfdom, and commuted the Robot.


1821 - 1848

Conservative Metternich system focused on preventing the French revolution from happening anywhere else. The Carlsbad Decrees were basically some rules of major censorship to prevent this revolutionary ideas from taking hold and causing any trouble. The Concert of Europe remained the balance of power. He hated liberalism and self-determination.

1848 Revolts

January 1848 - May 1848

People demanded civil liberties, unified Germany (Pangermanism). Metternich flees and Franz Joseph puts down the rebellion and reasserts the Empire.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

The Solider King. Called the Solider King because under him Prussias military exploded into potency and Prussia became the Sparta of the North.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

United Prussia by claiming Silesia in the War of Austrian Succession. Gave princes a place in the government mass. He established universal religious toleration and granted freedom of the press. He established individual protections against the law by speeding up the legal process, abolishing torture, and making sentences of death legal only with his personal sanction. Prussian judges were educated and the courts gained a reputation as the most honest in Europe. He established the first German law code and enforced general education rules across Prussia. Frederick financed the rebuilding of towns through agricultural reforms and built thousands of miles of roads.

Johan Herder

1744 - 1803

Developed the idea of Nationalism. rganic nationalism, a form of ethnic nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy from historic cultural or hereditary groups. The underlying assumption is that every ethnicity should be politically distinct. Herder’s ideas on the subject were expressed in his theory of the Volksgeist.

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate

January 1800 - may 1803

Sought to unify the German states. Note that this did not include Austria.

George Friederick Hegel

January 1830 - May 1830

The evolutionary quest for greater unity in truth is achieved by the famous dialectic, positing something (thesis), denying it (antithesis), and combining the two half-truths (synthesis) which will contain necessarily a greater portion of truth in its complexity. Only the absolute is non-self-contradictory. It has something of the harmony of opposites of Heraclitus. When applied as the underlying dynamic principal in the history of civilizations and of nations, it leads to plausible explanations (historicism) but bad history.

Frankfurt Assembly

January 1848 - May 1848

Elected Parliament and unified the States as a German Empire. Frederick William IV rejects the crown because he is a pretentious jackass who hates the common man.


Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence, Italy. The High Renaissance flourished in Rome.


1450 - 1500

People began to look back to the classics for an increased importance of man. Opposite of middle age scholasticism.

Prestige Of Florence

1460 - 1470

Centralized trade routes and the wealthy Medici Banking family controlled much of everything.

Political Organization of Italy

1461 - 1470

Oligarchy. Wealthy businessmen controlled much of the city states. Trade flourished.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Son of Pope Alexander I. Tried to unite Italy, admired by Machiavelli for his unrelenting military power and powerful leadership.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Lorenzo the Magnifco! Commissioned artists and beautified Florence.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

Dominican Friar who attacked the Medici family and the corruption of the Papacy. Executed for heresy.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

In Rome.


January 1513 - May 1513

Published the prince which created the idea of a Machiavellian monarch who sacrifices much of public opinion for the state.

End of Italian Renaissance

1526 - 1527

Charles VIII sacked Rome in 1527 and snuffed the Renaissance.


January 1528 - May 1528

Published the Courtier which described the dream Renaissance man, who could do everything and was a total intellectual dreamboat.


January 1632 - May 1632

Proves Heliocentric theory. The church attempts to make him recant, causes a major struggle between logical and religious beliefs.

Cessare Baccaria

January 1764 - May 1764

Detests the death penalty and advocates for better treatment of criminals.


1800 - 1850

The desired unification of Italy. Three groups: MAzzini's (wanted democracy), Sardinians (constitutional monarchy), Neo Guelfs (wanted Catholic theocracy).

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Legitimization of the royal families. Reparation for War losses. Balance of power. Austria got lombardy and venetia.



january 1848 - may 1848

unification movements failed because of all the three groups, nobody could agree on anything.

Gieuseppi Mazzini

January 1848 - May 1848

Leader of Young Italy, they wanted a democratic and united Italy.