Euro timeline up to 19th century


Concordat of Bologna

01/01/1516 - 12/31/1516

Made France officially Catholic

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Rules for her incompetent sons, tried to be a politique but failed because of St. Bartholomews day massacre

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

01/01/1572 - 12/31/1572

Catherine de Medici ordered this to happen. The pope laughed and gave the messenger a bag of god.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Switched from Huguenot to Catholic. Created the Edict of Nantes which gave huguenots cities, or huguenot pockets. He was killed by a religious fanatic.

Louis XIII/ Richelieu

1610 - 1643

He turned his power over to Richelieu. Made the French Academy. He decreased power of the nobles and he also took the walls of cities of Huguenot cities. He helped Gustavus Adolphus in the war between HRE and Sweden.

Thirty years war

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sends french troops to limit the power of the Hapsburgs and by the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

I am the state. He fought way to many wars that hurt the economy. Disbanded the Edict of Nantes. He kept the nobles in Versailles.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Unite the thrones of Spain and France. Every other country that opposed it.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Roccoco art style. And his famous mistress was Madame de Pompadour.


01/01/1748 - 12/31/1748

Separation of power.

seven years war

1756 - 1763

Austria versus Prussia on the continent fighting. Off the colony Austria's allies versus Prussia's allies. France loses American colonies.


01/01/1759 - 12/31/1759

I don't agree with what you say but I will fight to the death to defend your right to say it. Hated the Catholic Church


01/01/1762 - 12/31/1762

General will is the most important thing. Learned through experience is his theory on education.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

A fat schlub. His wife was Marie Antoinnete they hated her cause she wasn't in touch with reality and the plight with the poor. He was executed for treason against France

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped to get back at Britain for the seven years war. this crippled the French economy.

National Assembly

1789 - 1791

Was the first attempt at a democratic government in France

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

The government that executed their own people to get rid of all traces of religion and monarchy from government.


1795 - 1799

Replaced the Republic after the Thermidorian Reaction


1799 - 1815

The concordat of 1801 reestablished Catholicism in France.The napoleonic code gave equal rights to all. the Continental system was to try to embargo Britain. peninsular war was to get control of Spain. The invasion of Russia was a military blunder. Waterloo was Napoleons final defeat.


1814 - 1824

Was Louis XVI's brother and he wrote the charter of 1814

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Military reperations, balance of power, fix what napoleon messed up. France was treated pretty fairly

Charles X

1824 - 1830

He was a conservative and undid what Louis XVIII did. The people revolted again.

July Revolutions

01/01/1830 - 12/31/1830

They were against Charles X.

Louis Phillippe

1830 - 1848

called the civilian king and his reign was known as the progressive monarchy or the merry monarchy. He didn't dress up like the monarchy before him but dressed like the civilians. he ignored the demands of people and that caused the February rebellion.

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

A republic and the ones that could vote was the middle class and lower class. They were influenced by socialism

February Revolt

02/01/1848 - 02/29/1848

against Louis Philippe. A democracy took over afterwards.

Provisional Government

03/01/1848 - 04/30/1848

He was the president during the the government

June days

06/01/1848 - 06/30/1848

they were rioting against the provisional government. A republic

Holy Roman Empire


01/01/1465 - 12/31/1465

He invented the printing press.


01/01/1517 - 12/31/1517

Sola fidie is his views of salvation through faith. He believed everyone should be able to read the bible and interpret it for themselves. Really conservative on government.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Nicknamed the Universal Monarch, he inherited the land from his parents. He split his land between his brother and his son.

Diet of Worms

01/01/1521 - 12/31/1521

It was to try to get Luther to Recant and take everything back.

German Peasants Revolt

01/01/1525 - 12/31/1525

The peasants believed in his priesthood of all believers and used it to try to overthrow princes. Luther was appalled by the revolt.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Reformed the Church and started the Counter-Reformation. It was slightly successful.

Schmalkaldic war

1546 - 1548

Protestant trade league versus the Catholic princes. It ended with the peace of Augsburg.

Peace of Augsburg

01/01/1555 - 12/31/1555

Freedom of religion to be Catholic or Lutheran. Cuius regio, euius regio.

Thirty years war

1618 - 1648

Everyone versus HRE. It started as a religious war but became political.

Peace of Westphalia

01/01/1648 - 12/31/1648

Now calvinists are included in HRE. ANd the Dutch got their independence.

German confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1850

Balance of power, war reparations, and reestablishment of old monarchy. Poland got divided between Prussia and Russia.

Confederation of the Rhine

1815 - 1820


Battle of Vienna

01/01/1683 - 12/31/1683

the ottoman empire attacked vienna and the siege was lifted when the, wait for it..... POLISH, saved the day and the king Jan Sobieski left his country to fight the Ottomans back.


1700 - 1701

A system of forced labor.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

He instituted it to ensure his daughter would inherent the land.

war of austrian succession

1740 - 1748

happened when prussia invaded silesia trying to get its ore deposits.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

limited the power of nobles and started up schools.

seven years war

1756 - 1763

war between prussia and its allies against austria and its allies. prussia won.

Vienna as musical center

01/01/1760 - 12/31/1760

Vienna became the center of European music when Maria took over and her reforms to the society of Austria.

joseph II

1765 - 1790

his mother was Maria Theresa. He was really extreme in his reforms and after he died they were all undone.


1821 - 1848

He was conservative was and tried to undo what Napoleon had done. He hated liberalism and democracy.

1848 revolts

01/01/1848 - 12/31/1848

The people wanted a new constitution. the government becomes a constitutional monarchy.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

He is the soldier king because he only had an army of the talees possible men.

war of austrian succesion

1740 - 1748

Prussia versus austria. Prussia won and silesia was taken.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

He reformed the education system throughout Prussia

seven years war

1756 - 1763

Austria and Prussia and Prussia won

johan Herder

1780 - 1790

He wanted a unified germany.

Gross Deutsch vs Kleine deutsch

1800 - 1810

It was a debate between wether a unified germany should include Austria or not.

George Hegel

01/01/1830 - 12/31/1830

He believed history repeated himself

Frankfurt Assembly

01/01/1848 - 12/31/1848

they wanted a constitutional monarchy. they offered the crown to the king of prussia, Friedrich Willhelm IV. He turned it down.


Political organization of Italy


Formation of city states

Early renaissance

1450 - 1500


Prestige of Florence


Lorenzo de Medici. He was a rich banker.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

He was a general who attempted to unify Italy. Admired since he was a strong leader.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruled in Florence, and he was Il magnifico

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

Monk who threw out the medici's and attempted to make a theocracy.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527




The human potential.



That a leader should be strong and protect his people.

End of Italian Renaissance


Invasion by France.



To be a well rounded man.



He said the world revolved around the sun.

Cesare Beccaria


He called for no torture or death penalty.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Reestablishment of monarchs, war reparations, balance of power.



The unification of italy, young italy, sardinians, neo guelfs.



three groups all wanted something different

Giuseppe Mazzini


Leader of young italy. and wanted to unify.