Made France officially Catholic
Rules for her incompetent sons, tried to be a politique but failed because of St. Bartholomews day massacre
Catherine de Medici ordered this to happen. The pope laughed and gave the messenger a bag of god.
Switched from Huguenot to Catholic. Created the Edict of Nantes which gave huguenots cities, or huguenot pockets. He was killed by a religious fanatic.
He turned his power over to Richelieu. Made the French Academy. He decreased power of the nobles and he also took the walls of cities of Huguenot cities. He helped Gustavus Adolphus in the war between HRE and Sweden.
Richelieu sends french troops to limit the power of the Hapsburgs and by the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe.
I am the state. He fought way to many wars that hurt the economy. Disbanded the Edict of Nantes. He kept the nobles in Versailles.
Unite the thrones of Spain and France. Every other country that opposed it.
Roccoco art style. And his famous mistress was Madame de Pompadour.
Separation of power.
Austria versus Prussia on the continent fighting. Off the colony Austria's allies versus Prussia's allies. France loses American colonies.
I don't agree with what you say but I will fight to the death to defend your right to say it. Hated the Catholic Church
General will is the most important thing. Learned through experience is his theory on education.
A fat schlub. His wife was Marie Antoinnete they hated her cause she wasn't in touch with reality and the plight with the poor. He was executed for treason against France
France helped to get back at Britain for the seven years war. this crippled the French economy.
Was the first attempt at a democratic government in France
The government that executed their own people to get rid of all traces of religion and monarchy from government.
Replaced the Republic after the Thermidorian Reaction
The concordat of 1801 reestablished Catholicism in France.The napoleonic code gave equal rights to all. the Continental system was to try to embargo Britain. peninsular war was to get control of Spain. The invasion of Russia was a military blunder. Waterloo was Napoleons final defeat.
Was Louis XVI's brother and he wrote the charter of 1814
Military reperations, balance of power, fix what napoleon messed up. France was treated pretty fairly
He was a conservative and undid what Louis XVIII did. The people revolted again.
They were against Charles X.
called the civilian king and his reign was known as the progressive monarchy or the merry monarchy. He didn't dress up like the monarchy before him but dressed like the civilians. he ignored the demands of people and that caused the February rebellion.
A republic and the ones that could vote was the middle class and lower class. They were influenced by socialism
against Louis Philippe. A democracy took over afterwards.
He was the president during the the government
they were rioting against the provisional government. A republic
He invented the printing press.
Sola fidie is his views of salvation through faith. He believed everyone should be able to read the bible and interpret it for themselves. Really conservative on government.
Nicknamed the Universal Monarch, he inherited the land from his parents. He split his land between his brother and his son.
It was to try to get Luther to Recant and take everything back.
The peasants believed in his priesthood of all believers and used it to try to overthrow princes. Luther was appalled by the revolt.
Reformed the Church and started the Counter-Reformation. It was slightly successful.
Protestant trade league versus the Catholic princes. It ended with the peace of Augsburg.
Freedom of religion to be Catholic or Lutheran. Cuius regio, euius regio.
Everyone versus HRE. It started as a religious war but became political.
Now calvinists are included in HRE. ANd the Dutch got their independence.
Balance of power, war reparations, and reestablishment of old monarchy. Poland got divided between Prussia and Russia.
the ottoman empire attacked vienna and the siege was lifted when the, wait for it..... POLISH, saved the day and the king Jan Sobieski left his country to fight the Ottomans back.
A system of forced labor.
He instituted it to ensure his daughter would inherent the land.
happened when prussia invaded silesia trying to get its ore deposits.
limited the power of nobles and started up schools.
war between prussia and its allies against austria and its allies. prussia won.
Vienna became the center of European music when Maria took over and her reforms to the society of Austria.
his mother was Maria Theresa. He was really extreme in his reforms and after he died they were all undone.
He was conservative was and tried to undo what Napoleon had done. He hated liberalism and democracy.
The people wanted a new constitution. the government becomes a constitutional monarchy.
He is the soldier king because he only had an army of the talees possible men.
Prussia versus austria. Prussia won and silesia was taken.
He reformed the education system throughout Prussia
Austria and Prussia and Prussia won
He wanted a unified germany.
It was a debate between wether a unified germany should include Austria or not.
He believed history repeated himself
they wanted a constitutional monarchy. they offered the crown to the king of prussia, Friedrich Willhelm IV. He turned it down.
Formation of city states
Lorenzo de Medici. He was a rich banker.
He was a general who attempted to unify Italy. Admired since he was a strong leader.
Ruled in Florence, and he was Il magnifico
Monk who threw out the medici's and attempted to make a theocracy.
The human potential.
That a leader should be strong and protect his people.
Invasion by France.
To be a well rounded man.
He said the world revolved around the sun.
He called for no torture or death penalty.
Reestablishment of monarchs, war reparations, balance of power.
The unification of italy, young italy, sardinians, neo guelfs.
three groups all wanted something different
Leader of young italy. and wanted to unify.