European History Timeline



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution / Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1700

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


France gets control of Catholic church in exchange for recognizing Pope's conciliar ideology. Francis I and Pope Leo X

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Fake politique who ruled for her three incompetent sons; unsuccessful politique for doing St Bart's Day Massacre/starting war of Three Henries

St Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Catherine de Medici orders Huguenots murdered on Henry of Navarre's wedding day. Pope thinks it's so awesome

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass" Edict of Nantes allows Huguenot existence in areas of Hug majority. Politique 'cause he religion flip flopped but allowed Cath & Hug in his kingdom. Murdered by a roadside religious fanatic

Louis XIII / Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Louis XIII gave power to Richelieu. French Academy establishes edu/lang standards. Controls nobles, Fights Haps in 30 Years War, Huguenots - take away their fortifications and general rights.

30 Years War (1618 - 1648)

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sends French troops because he wants to crush dem Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

I am the state! He spent like a jillion bucks on Versailles (practically bankrupting France), engaged in unnecessary wars in which France did not benefit at all, he revoked the Edict of Nantes, made all the nobles his sons (they lived with him at Versailles and conformed to his every whim), ONE KING ONE LAW ONE FAITH

Montesquieu (Spirit of the Laws)


Separation of branches of government for balance of power. Climates determine type of government

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

This is a bout Spance (Louis XIV trying to put Phillip of Anjou [a bourbon] on the Throne of Spain). Everyone flips out because they don't want France to be too powerful. France loses, Britain and Quadruple Alliance wins. Philip still gets the throne, though cant lay claim to French throne. TREATY OF UTRECHT

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madame de Pompadour is his famous mistress. ROCCOCO

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Britain and Prussia VS French and Austrians. Off the continent - the possessions of these countries fought. France kinda loses, has to give up Louisiana Territory to Spain, no more official North American presence for France.

Voltaire (candide)


Loved free speech (defend to the death) hated the church (crush the thing)

Rousseau (Social Contract & Emile)


General Will of the people should decide decisions, but the GW is not always majority opinion. "Everywhere man is in chains" "noble savages = natural state" Society corrupts man. And he believes kids should go out into nature and learn on their own by doing, teacher is just there to ensure safety. Anti-enlightenment because he shows more Romantic traits of emotion and not really rationality

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

He was an indecisive little guy. His wife is Marie Antoinette & the French called her the German Mare, thinking she was too lavish and foreign and spending too much on frivolities and luxuries. After being dragged to Paris by crazies, a failed escape attempt, and the severe limiting of his power, he is deposed then executed. Charges of high treason

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped the Americans because they wanted to get back at the British after losses in 7 Year's and Spanish Succession Wars. France kind of gets inspired by our Revolution & it wracks their economy, only further adding to their debt. These two factors really start to fire people up.

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes - What is Third Estate? 3rd Estate is majority but lacks true representation or power. Unequal set up that is too good to the privileged few.
Assignats - paper money based on value of confiscated church lands
Civil Const of Clergy - govt finalizes abolition of clergy and church property and subordination/elimination of the Church
Constitution of 1791 establishes constitutional monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention - Montagnards and the plain, jacobins, girondins duke it out over different issues.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

The Directory was a five-man board that basically prolonged wars and only kind of upheld Rev ideals. The oligarchy was a three man consulship, but Napoleon eventually took over after the plebiscite to be first consul and then emperor.


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801- restored the position of the Catholic church under state control
Napoleonic Code was enlightened because it guaranteed that all men could hold property and codified the legal system.
Continental System was a trade blockade system aimed at hurting the British.
3 Parts of Empire - French Empire, Satellites, Countries forced into Continental System/Napoleonic Code
Peninsular War - unsuccessful invasion of Spain (guerrillas)
Invasion of Russia - very bad, Moscovites burned city to the ground and Nappy lost tons of men retreating in winter.
Hundred Days - He returns from "exile" on Elba to continue his awesomeness.
Battle of Waterloo - defeated by Duke of Wellington
Imperial Map 1812:


1814 - 1824

He is Louis XIV's brother. He kind of tries to appease the people and be just and fair and crap.
Charter of 1814 - establishes Chamber of Deputies, which are elected legislators. How forward thinking and not ancien regime-y!

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 Goals: Restore legitimate rulers to thrones, balance of power, Reparations for countries involved.
France's rep was Talleyrand.
They were treated pretty well at first, then slightly harsher.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative! Worked to restore ancien regime.
July Ordinances: dissolved Chamber of Deputies, decreased the number of voters, and controlled all the presses.
People start to revolt and put up barricades all over Paris (Les Mis)

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. The put up barricades in the streets of Paris, and it was largely a student-led revolt of the commoners. LES MISERABLES

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Citizen King - reign known as the Orleans Monarchy/ July Monarchy. His govt was controlled by wealthy (SO unusual).
He reduced property qualifications to vote, doubling the no. of voters. He abolished censorship, and made the tricolor the flag. He ignored the needs and demands of the urban workers, leading to rebellion.

June Days


4 Days in June. Rioting against Louis Blanc and the failure of the national workshops. a Republic took over.

February Revolt


Against Louis Philippe after he and PM Guizot outlaw public banquets. Provisional Coalition (socialist leaning) takes over

Provisional Govt

March 1848 - May 1848

Louis Blanc was an early socialist who wanted national workshops created by the govt to provide full employment. That did not work out very well because there wasn't enough $$ or jobs, really, so the govt was kind of just handing out $$ to people willy nilly. The workshops had to close, leading to socialist uprisings.

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

Republic. All males could vote and there was a unicameral legislature. The President was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. This republic was heavily influenced by Socialism!!

Holy Roman Empire



Invents the printing press for the Western world, changes society forever by increasing access to pamphlets and encouraging spread of ideas



Salvation through faith meaning faith alone will save you. Priesthood of all believers means we are all sinners & equal before God (BUT NOT BEFORE THE ECONOMY/SOCIETY) He's still a political conservative. Read: Peasant's Revolt reaction

Charles V

1519 - 1556

"Universal Monarch" - He inherits Spain and its land from his mom and inherits the HRE from his dad. Abdicates giving Spain and its holdings to his son, giving HRE to his brother.

Diet of Worms


The council that wanted Luther to recant his 95 Theses

. He was like "I'm not gonna recant" and then they issued the Edict of Worms and he went into hiding with Fred the Wise

German Peasant's Revolt

1524 - 1525

They used Luther's priesthood to say that if they were equal before God they should be equal economically/socially. Luther was like nahhhh you guys can't do that. (Was being protected by fiscal/political conservative nobleman Fred the Wise)

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Pope Paul III starts this to examine why people are switching to protestantism and Paul IV continues it to make serious church reforms to start the Counter-reformation. Pretty successful because the church is still around, but at the same time, it didn't exactly stop Protestantism.

Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1548

Ttensions were getting kind of high. Catholic forces of HRE Charles V fight Schmalkaldic Lutheran Princes. Ends in Peace of Augsburg

Peace of Augsburg


"cuius regio, euius religio" He who rules, his religion. Basically, you can choose between lutheranism and catholicism BUT NO CALVINISM

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Started out as Cath v Prot in HRE, but turns out to be like France, Sweden against Hapsburg HRE and stuff. Started out because Defen of Prague & Calvinism was left out of Peace of Augsburg, and people were not happy. France gets in it w/ Richelieu supporting Sweden Gustavus Adolphus because he wants to hurt HRE and Spanish Hapsburgs

Peace of Westphalia


Religious settlement - you can be Lutheran, Cath, or Calvinist!
Dutch Republic recognized as independent

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Napoleon creates this and extends his Code over it.

German Confederation

1815 - 1871


Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Restore legit monarchs, balance of power, reparations/concessions for war.
Poland gets absorbed by Russia, gets new Const, Alex I ignores it. Concert of Europe - system of meeting together to discuss continental issues.


Battle of Vienna


Suleiman attacks Vienna, saved by Jan Sobieski of Poland

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction allows all his land to go intact to his daughter Maria Theresa

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

She reorganized her military, reduced robot, and eased treatment of serfs

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Fred II and allies v Maria Theresa and allies. Maria loses. Prussia gains Silesia



peasant labor tax

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

On the continent: France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, Russia v Britain and Prussia
Off the continent: France & Britain duking it out colonially
Britain and allies win!

Vienna as the center for European music


waltzin and stuff.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

His mom was Maria Theresa. He expanded peasants rights, was religiously tolerant, legal reform, abolition of serfdom, medical reform, centralized church. All were undone after his death


1821 - 1848

Metternich System - system of international congresses where he aligns himself with Russia and Prussia
Carlsbad Decrees - censored freedom of speech, press, and nationalist assembly
Concert of Europe - balance of power in Europe with maintenance during crises and negotiations via large meetings
2 things he hates: liberalism and nationalism.

1848 Revolts


Austrians want liberal government. Metternic loses support of the Emperor and flees to England. The government becomes slightly more liberal, but not enough for the people, who riot. Emperor flees. Franz Joseph (nephew of Emperor Ferdinand) comes in and cracks down, reasserting ancien regime and Hapsburg dominance.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Soldier King because he makes Prussia the Sparta of the North and has an obsession with really tall soldiers. He was also super fat and liked to grease up for battles, if I remember correctly.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Fred II and allies v Maria Theresa and allies. Maria loses. Prussia gains Silesia

Frederick II

1740 - 1789

Reforms - abolished torture, educational rules, freedom of press, no death sentence w/o personal sanction, put princes in govt bureaucracy, religious toleration, first German law code, agricultural reforms
Pragmatic Sanction - defied it to gain Silesia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

On the continent: France, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, Russia v Britain and Prussia
Off the continent: France & Britain duking it out colonially
Britain and allies win!

Johann Herder

1780 - 1800

important philosopher who criticized Enlightenment ideals and strongly shaped the European Romantic movement. Influences the sturm and drang (storm and stress) ideology/movement.

George Friederick Hegel


Progression of history comes down to conflict. One phase of history creates its opposite. Thesis X Antitheses = Synthesis = New Thesis.
Hegelian Dialectic

Gross deutsch vs kleine deutsch


Gross - all Germany unified WITH Austria
Kleine - all WITHOUT Austria

Frankfurt Assembly/Parliament


Wrote the New Constitution, which provided for an Elected Parliament and would unify the states as a German Empire. Crown offered to Fred Will IV, who rejected it, calling it a "crown from the gutter" because it was offerred to him by elected official, not princes.


Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Begins in Florence due to funding by super rich Medicis and position as a wealthy merchant/trading city.

Political organization of Italy


City-state structured that encouraged fierce city-state pride and loyalty. Within city-states, merchant and upper class ruled behind the scenes, though there were various forms of Signoria and popolo attempts at stablilizing rule

Prestige of Florence


Medici family ruled. They were powerful because they got an early in on the banking industry because they could lend with interest. Florence also had money from trading and merchant stuff. Brunelleschi's Dome and Ghiberti's Baptistery doors

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

He was the son of Pope Alex VI. He was used as the model for the face of Jesus. Machiavelli liked him because he thought that he had the cunning and guile it would take to unify and rule Italy. His ideal Machiavellian monarch!

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1498

He ruled Florence for a while, also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent. He was the head of the Medici family and gave tons of money for arts and humanities in Florence

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He was a Dominican monk who said the Medicis and Florence and Italy were basically corrupt and bad, calling for the kick out of the Medici family. Bonfire of vanities - destroying art and books and stuff because it's EVIL!!! Medicis are exiled, but everyone realizes Savvy is crazy, and they call them back. Then they kill him



Belief that humans were worthy of study and art and examination and prefers individuality and beauty over like super rationalized church dogma. They wanted to examine ancient classical texts and myths and ideas and artforms and looked at the vernacular languages.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

IN ROME because of Vatican funding dope art and architecture and sculpture projects



The Prince - describes the ideal manner of rule ( doing whatever it takes to stay in power) of a monarch. Describes his aspirations for a unified Italy

End of Italian Renaissance


Ended by the invasion of Charles VIII of France



Book of the Courtier - describes the ideal Ren Man and Woman (smart, sexy, well spoken, well poised and quiet and subservient and beautiful, respectively)



Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems - He empirically proved Copernicus' heliocentricism to be correct. Received very poorly by Pope, forced to recant, but still said "eppur si muove" - and still it moves

Cesare Beccaria


On Crime and Punishment - basically decries the death penalty and calls for better treatment of prisoners/criminals

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 Goals: Restore legitimate rulers to thrones, balance of power, Reparations for countries involved.
Lombardy, Venetia, and Milan go to Austria.



"Reorganization" - they are attempting to come up with a way to reorganize and potentially unify the Italian peninsula. started with carbornari (coal burners talking on beaches) They really just want to be without foreign influence (Austrians in Lombardy, Venetia, Milan and Bourbons in Kingdom of the Two Sicilies). 3 Groups: Mazzini's Young Italy, Sardinians, Neo Guelfs



Unification movements failed because they were divided groups with different ideas. YI wanted democracy. Sardinians wanted constitutional monarchy. Neo Guelfs wanted Catholic theocracy.

Giuseppe Mazzini


He was a politician/philosopher/write "heart of Italian unification" His group is Young Italy and they want democracy for unified Italy