Timeline Project


Concordat of Bologna


Concordat of Bologna was an agreement between French king Francis I and Pope Leo X where France was to remain Catholic and the Pope could collect church income and the king could choose church officials.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Catherine de Medici ruled for her three sons in France and was not a successful politique due to the St. Batholomew's Day Massacre.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre was thought to have been instigated by Catherine de Medici to kill off Huguenot groups. Pope Gregory XIII sent the king a Golden Rose and ordered a hymn of praise.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth the mass." Henry IV switched religions from Catholicism to Protestant. Edict of Nantes gave Calvinists the right to practice their religion. Henry IV was a politique because he allowed Huguenots their rights. Henry IV was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic by being stabbed to death.

Louis XIII (Richelieu (1624-1642)

1610 - 1643

Louis turned power over to Richelieu who was his Prime Minister. The French Academy was established by Richelieu to help the French language. Nobles had no fun and no castles. Richelieu wanted increase power to Hapsburgs and destroy the Huguenots.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sent troops and wanted to have Balance of Power against Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state." Bad with economics- useless titles to pay for useless wars. Control of nobles- Versailles, exclude from councils, tax exempt. Control of Huguenots- convert to Catholicism.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

The War of Spanish Succession was to decide who will gain the throne next. Ended with Treaty of Utretch.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madame de Pompadour. Rococo.

Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws Published)


The government is based off of weather.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

France and Russia vs Prussia (off continent) and Austria vs Prussia (on continent). All American territories east of Mississippi to Britain

Voltaire (Candide Published)


Defender of free speech. Hates Catholic church.

Rousseau (Social Contract and Emile Published)


Theory of General Will was that people could overthrow the government if they want to. Theory of education was that children should learn on their own.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Marie Antonette. Madame deficit. Spent money. Killed for treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped in the American Revolution to get back at Britain. They suffered tremendous money loss.

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes wrote What is third estate. Assignants- new paper currency. Civil Const of the Clergy- church subordinate to the French Gov. Constriction of 1791- constitutional monarchy.

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention, Committee of Public Safety- 12 man council. Reign of Terror ran by COPS. Theridorian Reacion- backlash against Robespierre.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

Group of 5 people who ruled France.


1799 - 1815

The Concordat of 1801 made Napoleon a Consul. The Napoleonic Code of 1804 was enlightenment because it gave men more rights.


1814 - 1824

Brother of Louis XVI. Charter of 1814- constitutional monarch, bicameral parliament.

Peninsular War

1814 - 1824

Invasion = bad. 100 Days of Napoleon exile. Battle at Waterloo Napoleon lost.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals were to restore kings to thrones, reparations for war loss, and balance of power. Talleyrand. Leniently

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative. July Ordinances- control press, 3/4 French right to vote, dissolve parliament, new election, Charles X knocked off throne

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Citizen King. Middles class monarchy. Ignored demands of working class and caused Feb. Rebellions.

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. Stree barricades cleared troops from Paris. Middle class.

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Unicameral legislature government. Influence socialism. all males could vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte president,

February Revolt


Against Charles X. Provisional Gov.

Provisional Government


Louis Blanc leader of the government. Wanted National workshops. Didn't work.

June Days


Closed National Workshops. 2nd French Republic.

Holy Roman Empire



Printing Press- spread word faster.



Luther believed in salvation through faith, priesthood of all believers, and believed God ran the government.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal Monarch. Received Spain from Ferdinand and Isabella and HRE from his grandfather Maximilian . Spain goes to his son Philippe and HRE to his brother Ferdinand.

Diet of Worms


It was an assembly in Worms, Germany that addressed Luther and the Reformation. Found Luther a threat to the Catholic Church.

German Peasent Revolt


Peasants said Luther wanted equality for them. Luther meant religious equality, not social. Priesthood of all believers.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

It was successful in fixing the Catholic church problems. Counter-Reformation. Fixed church stuff like indulgences, simony, etc.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

The Holy Roman Emperor against Schmalkaldic League

Peace of Augsburg


Cuius regio, eius religio. It allowed practices of Lutheranism if the leader of the area was of the same religion

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Religious war fought by Protestants and Catholics. France joined to gain more power.

Peace of Westphalia


Agreed to allow princes to chose religion of his territory. Netherlands acknowledged

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 main goals- kings restored to the thrones, balance of power, reparations for war loss. Most of Poland went to Russia who created a Polish Kingdom overlooked by Alexander. Concert of Europe a balance of power.

German Confederation

1815 - 1871




Peasant labor

Battle of Vienna


HRE against Ottomans. Sobieski

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction- HRE to his daughter

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Reduced labor of serfs

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Maria Theresa against Fred II. Fred won Silesia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

France and Russia vs Prussia (off continent) and Austria vs Prussia (on continent). All American territories east of Mississippi to Britain

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Son of Maria Theresa. Abolished serfdom, religious tolerance. All his reforms were undone after his death.

Vienna as the center for European music


Vienna as the center for European music


1821 - 1848

Metternich system for censorship. Carlsbad decrees- 38 german member states to root out subersive ideas in university and newspapers. Concert of Europe- balance of power for Europe after Congress of vienna. Hated liberalism and nationalism

1848 Revolts


Magyars- liberal gov, bohemian- independence, austrain- liberal gov, italian- independent. Franz Joseph stops rebellions. ancien regime government.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Built up large army.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Ignored Pragmatic Sanction. Accepted Jesuits

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Maria Theresa vs Fred II. Fred won Selisia

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia. Prussia won.

Johann Herder

1780 - 1790

Herder was influential author to the romanticism and german nationalism. sturm and drang movement

Gross Deutsch vs. Kleine Deutsch Debate


gross deutsch- All german areas included austria. kleine- all german areas without austria.

George Friederick Hegel (pub. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences)


History has pattern and purpose. history progressing in clashes

Frankfurt Assembly


wanted parliament democracy. offered crown to Fred Wil IV. He refused to accept it. "crown from the gutter"


Political Organization of Italy- City states
Humanism- the belief in people being awesome and not ruled by God.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

The Early Renaissance began in Florance, Italy.

Prestige of Florence


Medici Family. Powerful because they sponsored the arts which increase the prestige of Italy

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Son of Alexander VI. Machiavelli admired him because he tried to unify Italy

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruler of Florence

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He was a Friar who was against the Medici family and their ruling.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

The High Renaissance was in Rome, Italy

Machiavelli (pub. The Prince)


Better to be feared than loved.

End of Italian Renaissance


Charles V invaded Italy ending the Renaissance

Castiglione (pub. Book of the Courtier)


Said how to be a real renaissance man.

Galileo (pub. Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems)


Cesare Beccaria (pub. On Crime and Punishment)


Treatment of prisoners. Prisoners should have rights.



Wanted to unify Italy. Young Italy- democracy, neo gulfs-theocracy, sardinians- constitutional monarchy

Congress of VIenna

1815 - 1820

Parts of Italy was taken up by the Austrians

Unification Movements


The unification movements in 1848 were unsuccessful because the three groups who wanted to unify Italy wanted a different type of government.

Giuseppe Mazzini


Giuseppe Mazzini was the leader of young italy who wanted to unify italy under a democracy



1400 - 1600

Age of Expolration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution

1550 - 1800

Age of Absolutism

1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850