A timeline comparing the events throughout history in France, the German states, and Italy.
In the Renaissance, humanism was a belief in the value of, and an educational program based on, Classical Greek and Roman languages and values.
This was a treaty between King Francis I of France and Pope Leo X that superseded the Pragmatic Sanction, making France Catholic again. It gave the king the power to appoint the bishops and abbots.
Catherine de Medici ruled for her three incompetent sons. She tried her darndest to rule as a politique...except for the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, which killed off the Huguenot leaders in Paris.
One of the Huguenot leaders, Henry of Navarre was celebrating his marriage to Margaret when Catherine de Medici believed these Protestants were on the brink of rebellion so she ordered all of them murdered. The killings continued all over France and are considered one of the causes of resuming the religious civil wars all over France. Pope Gregory XIII was overjoyed and rewarded a medal to those who killed the Huguenots.
"Paris is well worth a mass." He is a flip-flop because he changed religions back and forth between Catholicism and Protestanism. In the Edict of Nantes, this allowed the Huguenot Calvinists to worship in Catholic France. He was a politique because he allowed religious toleration. Henry IV was stabbed to death by a Catholic fanatic.
Because Louis XIII was a LAME ruler, he depended heavily on Cardinal Richelieu to make the majority of the decisions during his reign. His reign is well-known for establishing the French Academy, one of the five oldest institutes in France. He takes away the luxuries of the nobles, all of their castles. The Huguenots are allowed to practice but he takes away their fortifications. During the Thirty Years War, French troops are ordered to support the Dutch revolt against the Hapsburgs.
Cardinal Richelieu, under French king Louis XIII was unhappy with the power the Holy Roman Empire and the Hapsburg were gaining, so they sent troops in order to encourage revolts of countries to tear down the Hapsburgs. "By the time the war is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."
"I am the state." He was a poor economic man on his own because he gave tax exemptions to the wealthy nobles, was involved in many religious wars, and also built the most expensive castle in Europe, Versailles. He made the nobles live at Versailles at least twice a year so that he could keep an eye on them. Louis XIV was completely Catholic and revokes the Edict of Nantes which did not allow any of Huguenots to practice.
Spain was in a severe decline under Hapsburg King Charles II, and it was the largest European empire at the time. The throne was supposed to go to Philip of Anjou of France. People were afraid of a unified Spain and France. The war ended with the Treaty of Utretch. Philip V remained king of Spain, but was removed from the French line of royalty, so there was no unified kingdom of Spain and France. In return, he gave some of the Spanish territories to Austria and Great Britain.
His famous mistress was Madame de Pompadour. The art style of the time was Baroque Art with its emphasis on grandeur and drama.
wrote The Spirit of Laws. He was a social commentator during the Enlightenment who articulated the theory of a separation of powers into three branches of government.
The conflict which pitted France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and Spain against Prussia, Great Britain, and the German state of Hanover. Land and sea battles were fought in North America (aka the French and Indian War), Europe, and India. The European hostilities were concluded in 1763 by a peace agreement that essentially restablished prewar boundaries. The North American conflict, and particularly the fall of Quebec in 1759, shifted the balance of power to the British. The British had similar success in India.
wrote Candide. He is famously known for his attacks on the established Catholic Church and was an advocate for freedom of religion and freedom of expression.
wrote The Social Contract and Emile. Rousseau believed that humans were born naturally good and virtuous but were corrupted by society. He believed a child's first few years of education should be spent developing the senses, sensibilities, and sentiments. He was considered anti-Enlightenment because the ideas of the time were about reason and progress through the arts and sciences.
Louis XVI was an indecisive, conservative man who was married to Marie Antoinette. The French people hated her because she spent lots of money and did not care about the French people. She spent all her time in the lavish castle and made no attempts to understand the poor, dying French people in the French Revolution. Louis XVI ended up being executed under the charges of tyranny of destroying liberty.
The French goal for their aid in the American Revolution was to weaken the British, who had just recently won the French and Indian War. Although the French did get their revenge, the war caused a huge debt for France, possibly one of the causes of the French Revolution in 1789.
Abee Sieyes wrote a pamphlet, "What is the Third Estate?" that manifested the sufferings of the heavily taxed, though extremely poor third estate. Assignats were the currency used in the French Revolution. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was legislation passed by the National Assembly in 1791 that turned clergymen into employees of the government and turned Church property into property of the state. The Constriction of 1791 created a constitutional monarchy, which allowed Louis XIV to still reign but made him move into the city of Paris.
The National Convention held power during the years of the first French Republic. The Committee of Public Safety was a 12-man committee created in the summer of 1793 and vested almost total power in order that it might secure the fragile French Republic from its enemies. The Reign of Terror was instituted under Robespierre's leadership by the Committee of Public Safety during the French Revolution; Robespierre created tribunals in the major cities of France to try anyone suspected of being an enemy of the revolution. During the period of the Terror, 300,000 people were sent to prison ad 40,000 died. The Thermidorian Reaction was the final phase of the French Revolution in which the moderate bourgeouis faction reasserted itself and concentrated simply on restoring order.
The Directory was a five-man board created to handle the executive functions of the government during the Thermidorian Reaction.
The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and the Catholic Church of Rome, reconciling France with the Catholic Church by stipulating that French clergy would be chosen and paid by the state but consecrated by the pope. The Napoleonic Code was an enlightened code because it was a system of uniform law and administrative policy Napoleon created for his European empire. The Continental System was established by Napoleon in order to weaken Britain, the system forbade the continental European states and kingdoms under French control from trading with Britain. His empire consisted of 3 parts: the empire of France along with a portion of Italy, the countries dependent on France or ruled by his family members and friends, and the allies of France whose allegiance was forced. The Peninsular War was a conflict between France and Spain/Portugal when French soldiers invaded Spain for control of the Iberian Penninsula. This war is particularly known for the guerrilla warfare. It ended with the Coalition of 1814 when Napoleon was defeated. At the time, the Russians were withdrawing from the Continental System, so Napoleon sent French troops into Russia to invade particularly Moscow. The czar Alexander I ordered the city to be burnt so that the French could not conquer it. As the French retreated, many were killed off because of the freezing Russian winter. The Hundred Days refers to the length of time between Emperor Napoleon's return from his exile on the isle of Elba to the restoration of King Louis XVIII. The Battle of Waterloo was in the Netherlands and this defeat signified Napoleon's final loss as he was exiled for good.
Louis XVIII was the brother of Louis XV, because Louis XVI had died by guillotine, and his son had died in prison. The Charter of 1814 was his version of a constitution, which was demanded by the Congress of Vienna, creating a constitutional monarchy.
Representatives from the four major powers that had combined to defeat Napoleon - Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria - met in Paris in 1814 to forge a peace settlement. The 3 main goals were to establish a balance of power, to prevent further political revolutions, and restore royal power. France's representative was Talleyrand, and France was deprived all territory conquered by Napoleon.
Charles X was the youngest brother of Louis XV and Louis XVIII. He supported the exile of the latter and succeeded him as French king. He was a very conservative ruler. The July Ordinances were issued by Charles X of France in 1830, which dissolved part of the legislative branch of the government and revoked the voting privileges of the bourgeoisie. The result was a rebellion by the bourgeosie, students, and workers that forced Charles X to abdicate.
The July Revolutions were led by the people to overthrow Charles X. There were barricades in the streets as the French people revolted. Louis-Phillippe then took over as king.
He was known as the "Citizen King' and his reign was known as the July Monarchy. He was different than other rulers because he supported colonial expansion and alliances with other European nations. He was supported by the upper class and liberal journalists. Although he ignored the pleas of the middle class which led to the February Revolt.
The conservative Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte came to power as president. In the end, he staged his own coup-d-etat, which put an end to the second republic. The voting rights at the time were restricted, and the economic policy of the time leaned on socialism.
After Louis Phillippe was overthrown, the Second Republic of France took hold. However, this republic was very conservative, so the more radical people of Paris were very angry and started a bloody rebellion.
The June Days were an uprising of the workers against the government of the Second Republic. The government had ended national workshops in an attempt to stop unemployment, but they only gave jobs that hardly provided enough food to eat. A new constitution was enforced that there should be an election for a president of the Republic every 4 years.
Gutenberg invented the printing press which allowed any press to be distributed in mass quantities, benefitting politicians, scientists, and any writer. The first book printed was the Bible. It also allowed Martin Luther's 95 Theses to be mass produced.
Salvation through faith, which stated that salvation came only to those who had true faith. Priesthood of all believers, which argued that all true believers received God's grace were, therefore, priests in God's eyes. Luther was a conservative and believed that citizens should do what the government says.
His nickname was "the Universal Monarch." He got all of his land from his family. On his mother's side, his grandparents were related to Ferdinand and Isabella which unified Spain and his paternal grandparents were rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
When Charles V retired to a monastery, he gave the Holy Roman Empire to his brother, Ferdinand. He gave the Spanish lands to Phillip II.
The Diet of Worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire, asking Martin Luther to recant. However, Frederick the Wise protected Luther. The result of this meeting was the Edict of Worms, which was basically an arrest warrant for Martin Luther.
Inspired by the charges brought by Martin Luther in the Reformation, peasants in Germany demanded agrarian rights and freedom from oppression by landlords and nobles. However, Martin Luther condemned this rebellion, ultimately leading to its defeat.
This was a reform council of the Catholic Church which began its deliberations in 1545. Despite its reformist, it continued to insist that the Catholic Church was the final arbiter in all matters of faith.
This was a time of violence between Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire and the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League.The war ended with the Peace of Augsburg.
Signed in 1555, it established the principle of "whoever ruler; his religion" and signaled Rome that the German princes would not go to war with each other over religion. Latin Phrase: "cuius regio, eius religio"
This was mostly a war fought between the Protestants and the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, but it eventually spread over the majority of Europe. The Defenstration of Prague began the war, which was when some Catholics got thrown out the window into a pile of poop. France entered the Thirty Years War because of a Bourbon-Hapsburg rivalry.
The Netherlands received their independence. Calvinism was officially a religion. This treaty ended the Thirty Years War.
Established by Napoleon, the Confederation was a group of German states.
Representatives from the four major power that had combined to defeat Napoleon - Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria - met in Paris in November of 1814 to forge a peace settlement. The three goals were: to prevent further aggression, restore the balance of power, and to restore Europe's royal family. Poland was a big deal and lots of fighting over it. Prussia, Austria, and Russia ended up splitting the country. Concert of Europe is the alliance created in November of 1815 that required important diplomatic decisions to be made by all four great powers - Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain - "in concert" with one another.
Vienna was the center for music of the time.
The Robot was the amount of unpaid labor the serfs did.
The strong Ottoman army besieged Vienna, Austria against the Holy Roman Empire. The Ottomans ended up losing, because Polish king Jan Sobieski.
The document that guaranteed the right of Maria Theresa, Charles VI's only child to ascend to the throne of Austria, but which was challenged in 1740 by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia.
A war started in 1740 by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia, whose aim was to extend Prussia into lands controlled by the Hapsburgs. Challenging the right of Maria Theresa to ascend to the throne of Austria, (which was a right guaranteed her by a document known as the Pragmatic Sanction), Frederick II marched troops into Silesia. Maria Theresa was able to rally Austrian and Hungarian troops and fight Prussia and its allies the French, the Spanish, Saxons, and Bavarians, to a stand-off.
She reduced the nobility's estates, which had used up lots of the government's money prior. She also abolished the tax exemptions of the landowners. She created a central administration which was separate from the judiciary system. She was a very strict Catholic.
The conflict which pitted France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain against Prussia Great Britain, and the German state of Hanover. Land and sea battles were fought in North America (where it is sometimes referred to as the French and Indian War), Europe, and India. The European hostilities were concluded in 1763 by a peace agreement that essentially reestablished prewar boundaries. The North American conflict, and particularly the fall of Quebec in 1759, shifted the balance of power to the British. The British had similar success in India.
He abolished hereditary privileges for the nobility and centralized the administration. Civil service was based on merit and loyalty not birth. He established social equality and security for the masses. He allowed freedom of religion. He completely abolished serfdom and feudal dues. He founded numerous asylums, hospitals, poor houses, and orphanages. He abolished torture and the death penalty in judicial charges.
The first chancellor under the reigns of Francis I and Ferdinand I. The Metternich System was the balance of power that existed in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. Carlsbad Decrees were a series of resolutions made by the Germanic states after liberal resolutions. It censored all publications, eliminated any nationalist organizations, and set up a central inquisitive squad, armed, that would take care of any rebellions. The Concert of Europe was an alliance created in November of 1815 that required important diplomatic decisions to be made by all four great powers - Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain - "in concert" with one another. He hated the French Revolutionary ideal of equality.
Assorted nationalists wanted to break away from the Austrian Empire. Those occupying Vienna demanded rights and freedom of the press, wanting to remove the much hated Metternich.
Vienna was the center for music of the time.
The Robot was the amount of unpaid labor the serfs did.
Frederick William I was known as the "Soldier King" because of his fondness of the military. He searched for the tallest men on earth to create a super-army he called the Potsdam Giants.
He gave the territorial princes representation in government. He granted freedom of the press and freedom of religion. He sped up the legal process, abolished torture and the death penalty. He established the first code of German laws and educated all judges. The Pragmatic Sanction was a document that guaranteed the right of Maria Theresa to ascend to the throne of Austria, but which was challenged in 1740 by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia.
A war started in 1740 by Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia, whose aim was to extend Prussia into lands controlled by the Hapsburgs. Challenging the right of Maria Theresa to ascend to the throne of Austria (which was a right guaranteed her by a document known as the Pragmatic Sanction), Frederick II marched troops into Silesia. Maria Theresa was able to rally Austiran and Hungarian troops and fight Prussia and its allies, the French, Spanish, Saxons, and Bavarians, to a stand-off.
The conflict which pitted France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and (after 1762) Spain against Prussia, Great Britain, and the German state of Hanover. Land and sea battles were fought in North America (where it is sometimes referred to as the French and Indian War), Europe, and India. The European hostilities were concluded in 1763 by a peace agreement that essentially reestablished prewar boundaries. The North American conflict, and particularly the fall of Quebec in 1759, shifted the balance of power to the British. The British had similar success in India.
Johann Herder was a German critic and philosopher who started the idea that culture and language unify a people not political boundaries.
This was a debate over how to unify Germany. The gross-deutsch opinion was that all German speaking people should be unified. The Kleine deutsch believed that only northern Germany should be united and that Austria should be left out.
wrote the Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences. He was one of the philosophers that started the "German idealism" because of his account of history which helped Karl Marx develop communism.
The Frankfort Assembly was a legislative body formed during the brief success of liberal reformers in Germany in 1848; they failed in their attempt to form a German nation.
Italy was politically organized in city states, such as the Papal States, Venice, Milan, Genoa, etc.
The Early Renaissance began in Florence.
During the prestigious period in Florence, the Medici family ruled the city and sponsored artists to come and glorify the city.
Pope Alexander VI, aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, reasserted papal authority in the papal lands. Cesare Borgia became the hero of Machiavelli's The Prince because he began the work of uniting the peninsula by ruthlessly conquering and exacting total obedience from the principalitities making up the Papal States .
Lorenzo de Medici, who led the ruling family of Florence, commissioned almost all of the great Renaissance artists.
Friar Savonarola was a preacher active in Renaissance Florence who denounced the clerical corruption, despotic rule, and exploitation of the poor. He called for civic glory and Christian renewal.
The High Renaissance moved to northern Italy, and its center was Rome.
Machiavelli's The Prince focused on the qualitites and strategies necessary for attaining and holding social and political power.
A defensive alliance existed between the Italian city states of Milan, Venice, and Rome. Ludovico Il Moro, the leader of Milan, broke this agreement and invited Charles V of France into Italy, making Italy into a battleground. This allowed the ideas to spread North, but eventually killed the Renaissance in Italy.
Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier describes the typical Renaissance man and woman.
The book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems dismantled the arguments in favor of tradition, Aristolian view of the cosmos, and it presented the Copernican system as the only alternative for reasonable.
On Crimes and Punishments abolished the death penalty and gave prisoners more rights.
The mid-nineteenth century Italian nationalist movement composed mostly of intellectuals and university students; from 1834 to 1848, the Risorgimento attempted a series of popular insurrections and briefly established a Roman Republic in 1848.
The Congress of Vienna had representatives from the four major powers that had combined to defeat Napoleon - Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, Prussia, and Austria - met in Paris in November of 1814 to forge a peace settlement. Austria got major portions of Italy.
Giuseppi Mazzini believed that "in laboring according to the true principles of our country we are laboring for Humanity." Thus the liberty of the individual and the love of a free nation overlapped greatly.
All of the unification movements in 1848 were unsuccsesful.