It allowed the French King to appoint Bishops in France if Pope was stronger than church councils.
Catherine de Medici
1559 - 1589
She was ruled for her children. She did not become a good politique since she had Protestants killed.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Happened during Wedding of a Huguenot and many Protestants died. Pope gave messenger a bag of gold.
1589 - 1610
"Paris is well worth a mass" is his famous quote. He kept changing religions to get throne. Made it legal to be a Huguenot with Edict of Nantes. He was a politique since he was tolerant of religion. He was killed by religious zealot.
Louis Xlll/ Richelieu (1624-1642)
1610 - 1643
He gave power to Richelieu. French Academy made an official dictionary. They took the power away from Nobles by taking their castles away. He took the Huguenots walls away. He fought the Hapsburgs in Thirty year war.
Thirty Year War
1618 - 1648
Richelieu sends French troops to fight Hapsburg because they were to powerful. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest Country in Europe."
1643 - 1715
He said "I am the state". He was bad at economics because he spent so much money he dd not have to build Versailles. He repelled the Edict of Nantes. He controlled nobles by making them move to Versailles. Controlled Hugues by making their religion illegal.
War of Spanish Succession
1702 - 1713
France wanted Spance. France lost everyone else won.
1715 - 1774
Rocco is his art style. Madam de Pompador was his mistress.
Published Spirit of Laws. Believed that the government should be divided into three branches of government and checks and balances.
1756 - 1763
Austria vs Prussia on content fighting over territory. Off content Austria Allies( France and Russia). vs Prussia allies (England) fought over colonies. Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes in Europe only colonies gained by Britain in America.
Published Candide. "I disagree what you say but will defend your right to say it". Wanted to destroy the church.
Wrote Social Contract and Emile. Wanted students to learn naturally no formal education. People should do what they want no thinking before speaking. Against structure of Enlightenment.
1774 - 1792
Marie Antoinette was unattarctive, overspending, and Austrian. Louis incompetent and was guillotined for treason
1776 - 1783
France hated Britain. France lost a lot of money.
National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly
1789 - 1791
Abee Sieyes was a 3rd estate author. Assignats currency backed by church property taken by Revolutionaries.Civil Constitution of the Clergy put the church completely under control of the revolutionary government.Constitution of 1791 established a constitutional monarchy.
1st French Republic
1792 - 1795
National Convention took over and ruled. Committee of Public Safety run by Robespierre lead the Reign of Terror by killing people. Thermidorian Reaction was agains reign of terror.
1795 - 1799
Oligarchy that was weak and inefficient. Was not a good form of government but was better then the previous government. It relied on the military to much.
1799 - 1815
Concordat 1801 made it legal to be a Catholic. Napoleonic Code allowed people to earn their title. Continental System made it illegal to trade with the English. Fought Spain in Peninsular War (1808-1812). Fought Russia winter defeated
his army. Hundred Days was the time he came out of exile. Waterloo where he was finally defeated. http://fc.greensboroday.org/~ldrewicz/NapoleonEmpire.JPG
1814 - 1824
He was brothers to Louis XVI. He was important to charter of 1814 because he needed it to get power.
Congress of Vienna
1815 - 1820
3 goals were to restore kings to thrones, reparations for war loss, and prevent future wars. France was represented by Charles Maurice. He had good influence on the decisions.
1824 - 1830
Conservative. July Ordinances gave the King more power. The people revolted.
Against Charles X. The Barricades in the street where sometimes believed to be in the French Revolution but really were in this revolt lead by the common man.
1830 - 1848
Called the Citizen King and reign was known as the " July Monarchy" He helped the people unlike other monarchs. Ignored the demands of the Urban Factory Worker and caused the February Revolt.
Against Louis Philippe. A Provisional Government took over.
March 1848 - May 1848
Louis Blanc was the leader. He wanted Public workshops for all. They did not work and the overthrew him. The June Days were against this government.
2nd French Republic
June 1848 - 1852
A Republic. They could Vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. Influenced by Socialism.
4 days in June. The People did not like that the workshops failed. A Republic took over.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose confederation of many small countries. Not very powerful.
He made a printing press which allowed the bible and other documents to be made quickly in native languages.
Believers were saved by faith not Works. All Believers could pray to God and equal in the eyes of God in Priesthood of all believers. Believed that people were not equal in government.
Labor Tax( forced labor)such as working on roads and things that improved the country.
Battle of Vienna
The Ottomans tried to take Vienna but the Polish came to save the day.
1711 - 1740
Pragmatic Sanction which allowed anyone to inherit the thrown, but the Empire must stay together.
It allowed Maria Teresa to inherit the throne.
1740 - 1780
She started reforms such as no more torture. Allowed to rule because of Pragmatic Sanction.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
The Prussian Empire attacked the Austrian Empire. Prussia won but not as much as they hoped. Silesia became part of Prussia.
Vienna as the center for European music
1750 - 1800
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
Austria vs Prussia. Britain Won. Yes England Won.
1765 - 1790
Maria Theresa was his mother. He was the most reformed ruler of his time.
Metternich(1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I & Ferdinand I
1821 - 1848
Metternich System suppressed of revolutionary and nationalist movements. Carlsbad Decrees banned national movements in Germany. Concert of Europe was their to keep balance of power. He hated Nationalism and Revolutionaries.
The people wanted democracy inspired by nationalism. King Ferdinand's troops led by General Radetzky destroyed the revolts.
Sparta of the North.
Frederick William I
1713 - 1740
“The Soldier King” because he built up the Prussian army to a World Power.
1740 - 1786
He allowed Jews into his country. He also did not uphold the agreement not to attack Maria Theresa in Pragmatic Sanction.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1749
Austria Vs. Prussia. Prussia won. Silesia gained by Prussia.
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
Austria vs Prussia on content fighting over territory. Off content Austria Allies( France and Russia). vs Prussia allies (England) fought over colonies. Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes in Europe only colonies gained by Britain in America. This is the third time this event happened on this timeline. I started Coping and Pasting.
1780 - 1790
aid everyone should be treated equal. early German romantic and showed paintings as storms. Wanted Germany to unify.
Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate
1800 - 1850
The argument if Germany should unify should Austria be included.
George Friederick Hegel (pub. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences,
That the power comes and goes from the ruling class as they our taken over by their underlings.
Wanted to unify Germany. They offered a crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV. He refused since it was offered to him by elected officials and not nobles.
The Political Structure divided into city states.
Prestige of Florence
Ruled by Medici. They were powerful because they owned the banks.
1476 - 1507
He was a son of Pope Alexander the 6th. He wanted to unify Italy which Machiavelli wanted.
Lorenzo de Medic
1478 - 1492
Ruler of Florence. He was a banker. Gave money to artists.
1494 - 1498
He was a friar that said the Medics were corrupt. H convinces the people to run them out and give himself power until they realized he was crazy.
1500 - 1527
It was in Rome since Church had all the money.
Machiavelli (The Prince)
This was a book that said that a Prince should be feared not loved.
End of Italian Renaissance
The Renaissance Ended when Charles V invaded on invitation of Ll Moro.
Castigione(Book of the Courtier)
It was for the perfect Renaissance Man. Then It talked about perfect lady.
Galileo (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems)
Showed that the Earth revolted around the Sun and made fun of the Pope. Catholic Church got mad.
Cesare Beccaria (On Crimes and Punishment)
He wanted better treatment for Prisoners and no more death penalty.
1800 - 1850
The unification of Italy. Neogufs( under Pope), Young Italy (republic) and, Sardinians (constitutional monarchy).