French and Others Timeline for AP Euro.




1400 - 1600

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Florence is were it started.

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1450 - 1527

Humans controlled their destine.


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


It allowed the French King to appoint Bishops in France if Pope was stronger than church councils.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She was ruled for her children. She did not become a good politique since she had Protestants killed.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Happened during Wedding of a Huguenot and many Protestants died. Pope gave messenger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass" is his famous quote. He kept changing religions to get throne. Made it legal to be a Huguenot with Edict of Nantes. He was a politique since he was tolerant of religion. He was killed by religious zealot.

Louis Xlll/ Richelieu (1624-1642)

1610 - 1643

He gave power to Richelieu. French Academy made an official dictionary. They took the power away from Nobles by taking their castles away. He took the Huguenots walls away. He fought the Hapsburgs in Thirty year war.

Thirty Year War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sends French troops to fight Hapsburg because they were to powerful. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest Country in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

He said "I am the state". He was bad at economics because he spent so much money he dd not have to build Versailles. He repelled the Edict of Nantes. He controlled nobles by making them move to Versailles. Controlled Hugues by making their religion illegal.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

France wanted Spance. France lost everyone else won.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Rocco is his art style. Madam de Pompador was his mistress.



Published Spirit of Laws. Believed that the government should be divided into three branches of government and checks and balances.

Seven Years

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia on content fighting over territory. Off content Austria Allies( France and Russia). vs Prussia allies (England) fought over colonies. Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes in Europe only colonies gained by Britain in America.



Published Candide. "I disagree what you say but will defend your right to say it". Wanted to destroy the church.



Wrote Social Contract and Emile. Wanted students to learn naturally no formal education. People should do what they want no thinking before speaking. Against structure of Enlightenment.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Marie Antoinette was unattarctive, overspending, and Austrian. Louis incompetent and was guillotined for treason

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France hated Britain. France lost a lot of money.

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes was a 3rd estate author. Assignats currency backed by church property taken by Revolutionaries.Civil Constitution of the Clergy put the church completely under control of the revolutionary government.Constitution of 1791 established a constitutional monarchy.

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention took over and ruled. Committee of Public Safety run by Robespierre lead the Reign of Terror by killing people. Thermidorian Reaction was agains reign of terror.


1795 - 1799

Oligarchy that was weak and inefficient. Was not a good form of government but was better then the previous government. It relied on the military to much.


1799 - 1815

Concordat 1801 made it legal to be a Catholic. Napoleonic Code allowed people to earn their title. Continental System made it illegal to trade with the English. Fought Spain in Peninsular War (1808-1812). Fought Russia winter defeated
his army. Hundred Days was the time he came out of exile. Waterloo where he was finally defeated.

Louis XIII

1814 - 1824

He was brothers to Louis XVI. He was important to charter of 1814 because he needed it to get power.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals were to restore kings to thrones, reparations for war loss, and prevent future wars. France was represented by Charles Maurice. He had good influence on the decisions.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative. July Ordinances gave the King more power. The people revolted.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Called the Citizen King and reign was known as the " July Monarchy" He helped the people unlike other monarchs. Ignored the demands of the Urban Factory Worker and caused the February Revolt.

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. The Barricades in the street where sometimes believed to be in the French Revolution but really were in this revolt lead by the common man.

February Revolt


Against Louis Philippe. A Provisional Government took over.

Provisional Government

March 1848 - May 1848

Louis Blanc was the leader. He wanted Public workshops for all. They did not work and the overthrew him. The June Days were against this government.

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

A Republic. They could Vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte. Influenced by Socialism.

June Days

June 1848

4 days in June. The People did not like that the workshops failed. A Republic took over.

Holy Roman Empire

Loose confederation of many small countries. Not very powerful.



He made a printing press which allowed the bible and other documents to be made quickly in native languages.



Believers were saved by faith not Works. All Believers could pray to God and equal in the eyes of God in Priesthood of all believers. Believed that people were not equal in government.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal Monarch was his nickname. He inherited his land from both sides of his family. He split his empire with his son getting Spain and brother getting Holy Roman Empire.

Diet of Worms


They wanted Luther to confess that he was lying to people. Luther did not confess.

German Peasants revolt


They wanted to be equal in government because Luther said they were equal in the eyes of God. Luther condemned their actions.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

It was a council trying to reform the Catholic Church. It made some changes to the Catholic church but did not fix the damage already done.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

It was Catholics Versus Lutherans leads to Peace of Augsburg.

Peace of Augsburg


It allowed the Prince of an area to decide which religion they wanted to be Lutheran or Catholic.Cuius regio, eius religio.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Catholics Versus Protestants. France joined the Protestants to take down the Hapsburgs.

Peace of Westphalia


Allowed people to be more religions. Netherlands was split and one half Protestant other Catholic.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals were to restore kings to thrones, reparations for war loss, and prevent future wars. Poland was split up. Concert of Europe was an alliance that would prevent people from fighting.


Had many ethnic groups.


1600 - 1900

Labor Tax( forced labor)such as working on roads and things that improved the country.

Battle of Vienna


The Ottomans tried to take Vienna but the Polish came to save the day.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction which allowed anyone to inherit the thrown, but the Empire must stay together.

Pragmatic Sanction


It allowed Maria Teresa to inherit the throne.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

The Prussian Empire attacked the Austrian Empire. Prussia won but not as much as they hoped. Silesia became part of Prussia.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

She started reforms such as no more torture. Allowed to rule because of Pragmatic Sanction.

Vienna as the center for European music

1750 - 1800

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia. Britain Won. Yes England Won.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Maria Theresa was his mother. He was the most reformed ruler of his time.

Metternich(1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I & Ferdinand I

1821 - 1848

Metternich System suppressed of revolutionary and nationalist movements. Carlsbad Decrees banned national movements in Germany. Concert of Europe was their to keep balance of power. He hated Nationalism and Revolutionaries.

1848 Revolts


The people wanted democracy inspired by nationalism. King Ferdinand's troops led by General Radetzky destroyed the revolts.


Sparta of the North.

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

“The Soldier King” because he built up the Prussian army to a World Power.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

He allowed Jews into his country. He also did not uphold the agreement not to attack Maria Theresa in Pragmatic Sanction.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1749

Austria Vs. Prussia. Prussia won. Silesia gained by Prussia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia on content fighting over territory. Off content Austria Allies( France and Russia). vs Prussia allies (England) fought over colonies. Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes in Europe only colonies gained by Britain in America. This is the third time this event happened on this timeline. I started Coping and Pasting.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

aid everyone should be treated equal. early German romantic and showed paintings as storms. Wanted Germany to unify.

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch debate

1800 - 1850

The argument if Germany should unify should Austria be included.

George Friederick Hegel (pub. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences,


That the power comes and goes from the ruling class as they our taken over by their underlings.

Frankfurt Assembly


Wanted to unify Germany. They offered a crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV. He refused since it was offered to him by elected officials and not nobles.


The Political Structure divided into city states.

Prestige of Florence


Ruled by Medici. They were powerful because they owned the banks.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

He was a son of Pope Alexander the 6th. He wanted to unify Italy which Machiavelli wanted.

Lorenzo de Medic

1478 - 1492

Ruler of Florence. He was a banker. Gave money to artists.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He was a friar that said the Medics were corrupt. H convinces the people to run them out and give himself power until they realized he was crazy.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

It was in Rome since Church had all the money.

Machiavelli (The Prince)


This was a book that said that a Prince should be feared not loved.

End of Italian Renaissance


The Renaissance Ended when Charles V invaded on invitation of Ll Moro.

Castigione(Book of the Courtier)


It was for the perfect Renaissance Man. Then It talked about perfect lady.

Galileo (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems)


Showed that the Earth revolted around the Sun and made fun of the Pope. Catholic Church got mad.

Cesare Beccaria (On Crimes and Punishment)


He wanted better treatment for Prisoners and no more death penalty.


1800 - 1850

The unification of Italy. Neogufs( under Pope), Young Italy (republic) and, Sardinians (constitutional monarchy).

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals were to restore kings to thrones, reparations for war loss, and prevent future wars. Parts of Italy given to Austria

Giuseppe Mazzini


Leader of Young Italy. He wanted a Republic.

Unification Movements in 1848


The Pope called in French troops which destroyed the Movement.