Parallel Timeline!




1400 - 1600

Humanism is an idea from ancient Greece and Rome in which people have huge capabilities and control their own destinies.

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1816

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna


It was established by Francis I, and it allowed the Pope to have control over church councils while the King was recognized as the head of Catholicism.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She ruled for her incompetent sons and was not a very good politique especially when it came to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massace.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Catherine de Medici had tons of Huguenots killed which made the Pope very pleased and he gave the messenger a bag of gold!

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth the mass." He had to switch to Catholicism in order to become king. Edict of Nantes said that Huguenots could worship in areas of Huguenot majority. He was a politique because he allowed some religious freedom and was eventually stabbed by a religious zealots.

Louis XIII / Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Louis XIII was so young so Richelieu did much of the ruling for him. The French Academy was a school that encouraged Enlightenment thinkers and started the dictionary. He considered nobles, Hapsburgs, and Huguenots to be his biggest enemies so he took away the noble's lavish lifestyles and castles, took away fortified walls from Huguenots, and entered the 30 Years War when he assists the Dutch to revolt against the Hapsburgs.

Thirty Year's War

1618 - 1648

Louis XIII / Richelieu sent troops to the Dutch and revolts against Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is strongest country in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state." Louis XIV was involved in many pointless religious wars and allowed for nobles to be tax exempt. He revoked the Edict of Nantes making France entirely Catholic. He forced all nobles to live at Versailles.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Charles II from Spain gave his throne to Louis XIV's grand-nephew (Philip of Anjou), so everyone went to war against France to maintain a balance of power. France did not win and the war ended with the Treaty of Utretch in which Philip could be the Spanish king but the two thrones could never be connected (aka no Spance).

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

His famous mistress was Madame de Pompadour. The art style was Rococco.

Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws)


He believed in a balanced government of 3 branches and drew his inspiration from England's constitutional monarchy.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Prussia and allies vs. Austria and allies. France ended up losing all colonies in America..

Voltaire (Candide)


He believed in free speech ("I don't believe in what you say but will fight for your right to say it" or something). "Crush the thing" about the church. Hated it.

Rousseau (Social Contract and Emile)


Government is a necessary evil and is ruled by General Will. Children should learn through experience, not through school.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

He was incompetent. His wife was Marie Antoinette who many disliked because of her huge amounts of spending. He was executed for treason against the state when he tried to flee during a time of desperation.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France was angry at the British after the 7 Years War. France fell into an economic crisis and ended up having a revolution of their own.

National Assembly / Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes wrote "What is the 3rd Estate?" and helped create the National Assembly. Assignats were created as paper currency backed by church properties. The Civil Const of the Clergy was the take over of the church by the National Assembly so Catholics were against the Revolution. After Louis tried to escape, Constitution of 1791 was signed which turned France into a Con Monarchy.

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

The National Convention took over after the Leg Assembly. The Committee of Public Safety was the executive branch of the Convention. Robespierre took over and began the Reign of Terror killing anyone opposing the Revolution (mostly 3rd Estate) and this ended in killing Robespierre (Therm Reaction).

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799


1799 - 1815

The Concordat of 1801 said Catholicism was the main religion of France. The Napoleonic Code was written clearly and was easily accessible as a replacement to old feudal laws. The Continental System disallowed any trade with England. Peninsular War (1808-1812), Invasion of Russia (lost due to cold winter and scorched earth policy), Hundred Days (1815), and Waterloo (1815)


1814 - 1824

He was the brother of Louis XVI. Charter of 1814 kept Napoleon's Code and religious arrangements but added the elected Chamber of Deputies.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of Power, Restore legitimate rulers to thrones, and compensation for war loss were the 3 main goals. Talleyrand represented France. France had little say until major split decisions needed to be broken.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative king. Had July Ordinances which 1) dissolved Chamber of Deputies 2) Decreased # of voters 3) controlled presses. Resulted in July Revolution.

Louis Phillipe

1830 - 1848

called the Citizen King and his reign was known as the "July" Monarchy. He doubled # of voters, abolished censorship, and replaced flag. He ignored the demands of urban workers and that caused the Revolutions of 1848.

July Revolutions


Against Charles X. There were barricades in the streets by urban workers.

February Revolt


against Prime Minister Guizot and Lou Phillipe. A provisional coalition gov rules France.

Provisional Government

3/1/1848 - 5/1/1848

Utopian socialist Louis Blanc wanted national workshops but there wasn't enough money or jobs.

2nd French Republic

6/1/1848 - 1852

Republic. All males could vote. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte became president. Heavily influenced by the economic philosophy of socialism.

June Days


4 days in June. Rioting against national workshops. Led to a Republic government.

Holy Roman Empire



Gutenberg invented the printing press! Very very important invention!



Sola fidel (Salvation through faith alone). Believed in priesthood of all believers. When peasants revolted against gov with these beliefs though, Luther reacted against them saying that priesthood of all believers only applies to church rather than government which gives him support from German princes. He is a political conservative.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal Monarch. Got Spain from mother's side and got the Holy Roman Empire from his father's side. He gave the Holy Roman Empire to his younger brother Ferdinand I and gave Spain to his son Philip II.

Diet of Worms


Charles V and Luther met and Charles V tried to get Luther to recant his beliefs, but he refused!

German Peasants Revolt


The peasants used Luther's belief in equality under God and faith and applied it to the government, but since Luther is a government conservative, he told them to stop revolting in his book On the Murderous Thieving Hordes (or something)

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

This was the Catholic meeting in which they cleaned up the church and reasserted many of their beliefs which was begun by Pope Paul II. It was fairly successful because they fixed all of the problems of the church that caused the Reformation in the 1st place.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Charles V of HRE against Lutherans. Ended with the Peace of Augsburg.

Peace of Augsburg


The prince's religion could decide the religion of his region. "Cuius regio. Eius religio."

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Fought as a war between Catholic League (Hapsburgs) and Protestant Union in the HRE. Started with the defenestration of Prague. France declared war on Spain and got involved.

Peace of Westphalia


Recognized the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Allowed Calvinism.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

A confederation of German states that was established by Napoleon.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Goals:1) Balance of Power, 2) Restoration of previous monarchs back to the thrones, 3) Compensation of war reparations. Poland was a major issue and ended up being divided between Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Concert of Europe was established as a meeting when issues arose in Europe.

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

The confederation of German states established by the Congress of Vienna.




Regulated the amount of work required from a serf.

Battle of Vienna


HRE vs Ottoman Turks (who invaded). Jan Sobieski and the Polish army saved the day to help the HRE win.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issued Pragmatic Sanction which ensured that his land be handed safely to his heir (Maria Theresa).

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

She reduces the robot and professionalized/expanded the army.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

After Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VI, Frederick II (Prussia) invades Austria anyways against Maria Theresa. Although she keeps her monarchy, Frederick takes Silesia.

7 Years War

1756 - 1763

On continent: Austria vs. Prussia. Off continent: France and Russia (Austria's allies) vs. England (Prussia's allies). Ends in Treaty of Paris 1763. France lost territories - Prussia wins.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Ruled jointly with mother until her death. He abolished serfdom, religious toleration, granted peasants rights. Very extreme and most reforms were undone after he died.

Vienna as the Center for European Music



1821 - 1848

(in office from 1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I & Ferdinand I ). Metternich System was suppression of national and revolutionary movements. Carlsbad Decrees required 38 German states to root out subversives in schools and newspapers. Concert of Europe to maintain balance of power and peace after CoVienna. Hates nationalism and liberalism.

1848 Revolts


People want the introduction of civil liberties and the idea of a unified Germany. Rioting breaks out in Vienna and the gov becomes slightly more liberal but eventually the gov takes back over and Francis Joseph becomes the ruler.


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

Known as the "Soldier King" because he made Prussia the "Sparta of the North" and extremely militaristic. He even had an army of giants: Potsdam Giants.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

His reforms include abolished serfdom, bureaucratic reforms with civil servants not just nobility, abandoned capital punishment, and protected religious minorities. He ignores Pragmatic Sanction and invades Austria and Maria Theresa anyways and gets Silesia.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria (Maria Theresa) vs. Prussia (Frederick II). Frederick II seized Silesia but Maria Theresa remained ruler of Austria.

7 Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria (and France and Russia) vs. Prussia (and England). Ends with Treaty of Paris 1763. Prussia successful. France loses colonies.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

He was a German philosopher, writer, etc. associated with the enlightenment and he supported the French Revolution as well as other revolutions that occurred. Johann Herder was an early German romantic (into the "storm and stress" aka strum and drang movement) and all about German Nationalism.

Gross Deutsch vs. Kleine Deutsch Debate


The debate over the best unification method of Germany. Greater German solution wanted to unify all German speaking states. Lesser German solution wanted to unify only the upper states excluding Austria.

29. George Friederick Hegel


pub. Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences. He believes history progressed through a series of conflicts and revolutions. Each period in history and each culture is valuable because it contributes to the necessary clash. Influences socialist economy.

Frankfurt Assembly


Wrote a new constitution calling for an elected Parliament and would unify the states as a German Empire. Frederick William IV rejected the "crown from the gutter".


Political Organization


Italy was broken up into many city-states and was ultimately not united.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence and had a high point in Rome.

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1470

The powerful banking family known as the Medicis ruled Florence and it was powerful because of their huge banking empire.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

He was the son of Alexander VI who tried to unite Italy. He was admired by Machiavelli because of this attempt to unite Italy and his harsh methods of doing so.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Ruled over Italy and was known as"The Magnificent" and was part of the Medici banking family.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

Savonarola criticized humanism, worldly things, and the corruption of the Medicis. He was burned at the stake.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

The high point of the Renaissance occurred in Rome.



Wrote "The Prince" on how to rule successfully. He advises rulers to be harsh, deceitful when necessary, and be cruel in order to maintain control and power.

End of Italian Renaissance


It ends when Charles V invades the Italian city-states.



Wrote "The Courtier" which was about the perfect Renaissance man and woman and their roles in society.



Wrote "The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems." He proposed the idea that the sun was the center of the universe and other things but the Catholic church was furious at this proposal and tried to get him to recant but he didn't.

Cesare Beccaria


"On Crime and Punishment". Abolish death penalty and treat prisoners better.


1810 - 1840

This was the unification of Italy. The 3 groups who wanted to do this were Young Italy, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Wanted balance of power, restoring old monarchs to thrones, and war reparations. Big parts of Italy went to Austria.



They revolutions failed because they were divided between three groups who wanted different things: Young Italy (democracy), Sardinians (constitutional monarchy), and Neo Guelfs (Catholic theocracy).

Guiseppe Mazzini


Leader of Young Italy who wanted democracy in Italy.