AKA the time of You get a revolt! And you get a revolt! Everyone gets a revolt!
Humanism: power to the individual, they control their own destiny, also emphasis on Classical Greece and Rome
Don't worry, it's only super complicated.
Francis I-kept France Catholic. French Kings had to recognize Pope's authority over Church Councils (b/c of concilliar movement) and the Pope had to recognize French King's authority over the French church.
Ruled for sons who were incompetant. Although she tried to be a politique..thanks to the St. Batholomew's Day Massacre, it didn't really work out.
Catherine de Medici was coerced into sending troops to kill all the Huguenots attending a wedding. The Pope was very happy about this and gave the messanger a bag of gold.
"Paris is well worth a mass" changed religions from huguenot to catholic many times, finally converted to catholicism. Edict of Nantes allowed Huguenots to practice their religion only in Huguenot pockets. He was a politique because of his religious tolerance. He was stabbed by a religious zealot. Poor guy.
Richelieu pretty much ran the show for Louis. He controlled Nobles by taking away their castles and fun lifestyle, the Huguenots by taking away the walls around their cities, and supported the Protestants in the 30 Years War against the Hapsburgs. The French Accademy was created to standardize the French language and created the first dictionary.
Richelieu sent French troops to the Netherlands to support the Protestants against the Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."
"I am the State." Bad at everything. Economics- built Versailles, useless wars and no taxes for nobles. Religious Policy and Huguenots-forced Catholicism, revoked Edict of Nantes. Control of Nobles- made them live at Versailles
Charles 2 of Spain (who was crazy) appointed Phillip of Anjou, who was the nephew of Louis XIV. This would have created SPANCE. However no one else in Europe wanted this to happen so big war. Ended by Treaty of Utretch, said Phillip could be King, but Louis XIV couldn't interfere.
Madame du Pompadour was his famous mistress.
His art style was Roccoco.
Spirit of the Laws
Wanted three branches of government
Austria vs. Prussia on conteninent fighting over territory
France and Russia vs. England off continent
France lost territory in North America
Ended by Treaty of Paris 1763
Loved free speech. May not agree with what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.
Hated the church. "Crush the thing"
Social Contract-General Will-Whatever the majoirity of the people want
Emile-education-Children should be free in the wild to learn by themselves
Counter-Enlightenment b/c pretty much against everything other thinkers said
Very indecisive. Wife=Marie Antoinette and the French hated her b/c she represented everything about the corrupt nobility. Spent tons of money and knew little about her people. He was executed for treason.
Helped America b/c of revenge against Britain. Caused France to go into debt. A lot of debt.
Abee Sieyes-wrote the Third Estate
Civil Constitution of the Clergy-made all Clergy give up Catholicism (bad move)
Constitution of 1791- made France a constitutional monarchy
National Convention-ruling body of France
Committee of Public Saftey-executive branch of National Convention
Reign of Terror- orchestrated by Robespierre, killed a bunch of people.
Thermidorian Reaction- Robespierre was killed in this, he went slightly cray and changed the calendar and religion. The people thought this was too far so they revolted against him.
Group of five who ran France and although it was more stable, they were quite bloodthirsty and vicious so the French people still were not pleased.
Concordat of 1801-French people could be Catholic, Pope wasn;t entirely happy with this agreement
Napoleonic Code (1804) was enlightened b/c taxes were equal to everyone except women and labor unions
Continental System (1806) aimed against the British, no one could buy from Britain. Didn't work very well.
3 parts of Empire-Empire of France w/ Part of Italy, countries ruled by Napoleon's family members, allies of France forced into allegiance
Peninsular War (1808-1812)-against Spain, "Spanish Ulcer"
Invasion of Russia- Russian winter destroyed Napoleons army
Hundred Days (1815)- Napoleon came back and the people were ecstatic
Waterloo (1815)- Napoleon lost against Britain.
Louis XVI's grandson
Charter of 1814 kept Napoleonic Code and religious arrangement and added chamber of deputies (elected body)
3 Goals of CoV: Balance of Power, Restore Monarchy, Reparations
France's Representative: Talleyrand
France was treated very fairly with few reparations, but after the 100 days, they were a little more harsh
Conservative! Wanted Ancient Regime. July Ordinances dissolved chamber of deputies, decreased number of voters, controlled press. People hated it and revolted.
Called the Citizen King reign known as the July Monarchy or the bourgeois monarchy. He reduced property qualifications of voters, but ignored demands of urban worker. This caused the February rebellion.
Against Charles X. Workers and Middle Class revolted, created barricades in the streets (LES MIS).
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected Prez. All males could vote. Elected unicameral legislature. Influenced by socialism!!
Against Louis Philippe. Provisional coalition government rules France.
Louis Blanc was in charge of the provisional government he wanted national workshops. They didn't work and had to close.
Rioting against the national workshops closing
Second French Republic took over
Created the printing press! VERY IMPORTANT. Allowed for spread of new ideas which helped the Protestant Reformation.
Salvation through Faith: You don't have to do good works to go to Heaven, thus disagreeing with Catholicism
Priesthood of all Believers: everyone is the same in the eyes of God
Beliefs on Government: Not the same as the priesthood. Much more conservative. People should know their place.
AKA Universal Monarch
Got so much land from inheriting Spain from mom and HRE from dad. Lucky.
When he retired to a monastery, he gave Spain to his son and HRE to his brother.
Catholic Church told Luther he should recant. Luther said no.
They used Luther's idea of Priesthood of All Believers, everyone being equal and a backbone to their revolt.
Luther heartily disapproved of this and wrote a pamphlet called On the Muderous and Theiving Hordes against the revolt.
Attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Fairly successful b/c got rid of indulgences and simony and educated clergy.
Protestant Leagues vs. Catholic Princes
Result: Peace of Augsbourg
Basically German Princes could choose their religion (EXCEPT CALVINISM) and people could choose where they lived.
"Cuius regio, eius religio" Whoever rules, chooses religions.
Catholic areas v. Protestant areas.
Ended in chaos...everyone v. Hapsburgs
Started with Defenestration of Prague (aka best event ever)
France entered to fight against Hapsburgs
Religious Settlement: you can be whatever religion you want!
Northern Netherlands became independant (United Provinces of the Netherlands), Southern stayed with Spain.
3 Goals of CoV: War reparations, Balance of Power, Return legitimate rulers
Poland: Russia really wanted Poland. Almost went to war over this
Concert of Europe: involved almost everyone in Europe (also a big party)
Vienna was the center of music!
Robot: forced serfs to work 6 days a week and a lot of hours.
Ottoman Turks attack Vienna
Jan Sobieski saves the day!
Pragmatic Sanction: allowed Maria Theresa to rule Austria, other countries couldn't invade
Enlightened Reforms: reduced Robot, lessened restrictions of serfs
Prussia v. Austria (Prussia breaks Pragmatic Sanction)
Prussia won and took Silesia which is a terrible thing to fight over. Not worth it.
On continent, Austria v. Prussia, fighting over Silesia again.
Son of Maria Theresa
Enlightened Reforms: Abolished serfdom, religious freedom (Even Jews!), controlled church, reduced taxes
What a good guy.
1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821–1835) & Ferdinand I (1835–1848)
Metternich System: conservative political polices
Carlsbad Decrees:imposed rigid discipline on German states and established restrictions on German Press
Hated: Nationalism and liberalism
Concert of Europe: kept balance of power
People wanted more liberal government
The gov was made slightly more liberal but not enough so Metternich fled
Rebellion put down by Franz Joseph
"The Soldier King" b/c Potsdam Giants and awesome military. Made Prussia "Sparta of the North"
Enlightened Reforms: tax reforms and abolished serfdom
Pragmatic Sanction: broke it invading Austria to get Silesia. Dumb move.
Austria vs. Prussia
Prussia won and got Silesia.
On Continent: Austria v. Prussia
Prussia still wins.
Don't mess with Prussia.
Philosopher and literary critic who was instrumental in forming Romanticism in Europe and German nationalism
Gross deutsch was a unified Germany including Austria
Klein deutsch was unified Germany sans Austria
Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences-1830
View of History: Every age has a thesis and an antithesis which culminate in a synthesis which in turn becomes the next thesis
Provided for an elected parliament and would unify state as a German empire
The crown was offered to Frederick William IV but he rejected it b/c it was a "crown from the gutter"
No more nationalism. :(
Political Organization: individual city-states
Began in Florence b/c of rich bankers could be a patron of the arts
Cosmo di Medici ruled
Powerful b/c from wealthy banking family
Illigitimate child of Pope Alexander VI
Image of Jesus based off of him
Controls Pope's army's and gets a lot of land
Machiavelli liked him because he tried to unite Italy
Controls Florentine gov behind the scenes
Very rich banker
Patron to the arts
He was a dominican friar who hated humanism and the Medicis and convinced people to burn a lot of priceless art (b/c it was too secular) in the Burning of the Vanities. Was eventually killed b/c he was too radical
Took place in Rome b/c Popes had money
The Prince (1517): Said rulers should only be moral when it is beneficial. Otherwise, just appear moral. Better to be feared than loved.
During the Hapsburg-Valois wars, Charles V (HR Emperor) came and sacked Rome.
Book of the Courtier (1528): told men how to be the ideal Renaissance man...they can do everything
Dialouge Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632)
Said the Earth goes around the sun
Not recieved well by Catholic church.
(Under house arrest)
On Crime and Punishment
Treat criminals better, take away death penalty
Terrible ideas really.
3 Goals: Return legitimate monarchs, war reparations, balance of power
Italy was carved up and given to Austria
Unification of Italy!
Guiseppi Mazzini, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs all wanted unification
Unification was unsuccesful b/c everyone something different. Neo Guelfs wanted Catholic theocracy
Mazzini wanted democracy
Sardinians wanted constitutional monarchy
He was a true Romantic, the heart of Italy. His group was Young Italy and they wanted a democracy