Europe Through the Ages..or at least the mid 19th Century

AKA the time of You get a revolt! And you get a revolt! Everyone gets a revolt!



1400 - 1600

Humanism: power to the individual, they control their own destiny, also emphasis on Classical Greece and Rome

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Don't worry, it's only super complicated.

Concordat of Bologna

1/1/1516 - 12/31/1516

Francis I-kept France Catholic. French Kings had to recognize Pope's authority over Church Councils (b/c of concilliar movement) and the Pope had to recognize French King's authority over the French church.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Ruled for sons who were incompetant. Although she tried to be a politique..thanks to the St. Batholomew's Day Massacre, it didn't really work out.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1/1/1572 - 12/31/1572

Catherine de Medici was coerced into sending troops to kill all the Huguenots attending a wedding. The Pope was very happy about this and gave the messanger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass" changed religions from huguenot to catholic many times, finally converted to catholicism. Edict of Nantes allowed Huguenots to practice their religion only in Huguenot pockets. He was a politique because of his religious tolerance. He was stabbed by a religious zealot. Poor guy.

Louis XIII/Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Richelieu pretty much ran the show for Louis. He controlled Nobles by taking away their castles and fun lifestyle, the Huguenots by taking away the walls around their cities, and supported the Protestants in the 30 Years War against the Hapsburgs. The French Accademy was created to standardize the French language and created the first dictionary.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richelieu sent French troops to the Netherlands to support the Protestants against the Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe."

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the State." Bad at everything. Economics- built Versailles, useless wars and no taxes for nobles. Religious Policy and Huguenots-forced Catholicism, revoked Edict of Nantes. Control of Nobles- made them live at Versailles

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Charles 2 of Spain (who was crazy) appointed Phillip of Anjou, who was the nephew of Louis XIV. This would have created SPANCE. However no one else in Europe wanted this to happen so big war. Ended by Treaty of Utretch, said Phillip could be King, but Louis XIV couldn't interfere.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madame du Pompadour was his famous mistress.
His art style was Roccoco.


1/1/1748 - 12/31/1748

Spirit of the Laws
Wanted three branches of government

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia on conteninent fighting over territory
France and Russia vs. England off continent
France lost territory in North America
Ended by Treaty of Paris 1763


1/1/1759 - 12/30/1759

Loved free speech. May not agree with what you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.
Hated the church. "Crush the thing"


1/1/1762 - 12/31/1762

Social Contract-General Will-Whatever the majoirity of the people want
Emile-education-Children should be free in the wild to learn by themselves
Counter-Enlightenment b/c pretty much against everything other thinkers said

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Very indecisive. Wife=Marie Antoinette and the French hated her b/c she represented everything about the corrupt nobility. Spent tons of money and knew little about her people. He was executed for treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

Helped America b/c of revenge against Britain. Caused France to go into debt. A lot of debt.

National Assembly/Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes-wrote the Third Estate
Assignats-money used
Civil Constitution of the Clergy-made all Clergy give up Catholicism (bad move)
Constitution of 1791- made France a constitutional monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention-ruling body of France
Committee of Public Saftey-executive branch of National Convention
Reign of Terror- orchestrated by Robespierre, killed a bunch of people.
Thermidorian Reaction- Robespierre was killed in this, he went slightly cray and changed the calendar and religion. The people thought this was too far so they revolted against him.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

Group of five who ran France and although it was more stable, they were quite bloodthirsty and vicious so the French people still were not pleased.


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801-French people could be Catholic, Pope wasn;t entirely happy with this agreement
Napoleonic Code (1804) was enlightened b/c taxes were equal to everyone except women and labor unions
Continental System (1806) aimed against the British, no one could buy from Britain. Didn't work very well.
3 parts of Empire-Empire of France w/ Part of Italy, countries ruled by Napoleon's family members, allies of France forced into allegiance
Peninsular War (1808-1812)-against Spain, "Spanish Ulcer"
Invasion of Russia- Russian winter destroyed Napoleons army
Hundred Days (1815)- Napoleon came back and the people were ecstatic
Waterloo (1815)- Napoleon lost against Britain.


1814 - 1824

Louis XVI's grandson
Charter of 1814 kept Napoleonic Code and religious arrangement and added chamber of deputies (elected body)

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 Goals of CoV: Balance of Power, Restore Monarchy, Reparations
France's Representative: Talleyrand
France was treated very fairly with few reparations, but after the 100 days, they were a little more harsh

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative! Wanted Ancient Regime. July Ordinances dissolved chamber of deputies, decreased number of voters, controlled press. People hated it and revolted.

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Called the Citizen King reign known as the July Monarchy or the bourgeois monarchy. He reduced property qualifications of voters, but ignored demands of urban worker. This caused the February rebellion.

July Revolutions

7/1/1830 - 7/31/1830

Against Charles X. Workers and Middle Class revolted, created barricades in the streets (LES MIS).

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected Prez. All males could vote. Elected unicameral legislature. Influenced by socialism!!

February Revolt

2/1/1848 - 2/26/1848

Against Louis Philippe. Provisional coalition government rules France.

Provisional Government

3/1/1848 - 5/1/1848

Louis Blanc was in charge of the provisional government he wanted national workshops. They didn't work and had to close.

June Days

6/1/1848 - 6/5/1848

Rioting against the national workshops closing
Second French Republic took over

Holy Roman Empire


1/1/1465 - 12/31/1465

Created the printing press! VERY IMPORTANT. Allowed for spread of new ideas which helped the Protestant Reformation.


1/1/1517 - 12/31/1517

Salvation through Faith: You don't have to do good works to go to Heaven, thus disagreeing with Catholicism
Priesthood of all Believers: everyone is the same in the eyes of God
Beliefs on Government: Not the same as the priesthood. Much more conservative. People should know their place.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

AKA Universal Monarch
Got so much land from inheriting Spain from mom and HRE from dad. Lucky.
When he retired to a monastery, he gave Spain to his son and HRE to his brother.

Diet of Worms

1/1/1521 - 12/31/1521

Catholic Church told Luther he should recant. Luther said no.

German Peasants Revolt

1/1/1525 - 12/31/1525

They used Luther's idea of Priesthood of All Believers, everyone being equal and a backbone to their revolt.
Luther heartily disapproved of this and wrote a pamphlet called On the Muderous and Theiving Hordes against the revolt.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Attempt to reform the Catholic Church. Fairly successful b/c got rid of indulgences and simony and educated clergy.

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestant Leagues vs. Catholic Princes
Result: Peace of Augsbourg

Peace of Augsbourg

1/1/1555 - 12/31/1555

Basically German Princes could choose their religion (EXCEPT CALVINISM) and people could choose where they lived.
"Cuius regio, eius religio" Whoever rules, chooses religions.

Thirty Years Wars

1618 - 1648

Catholic areas v. Protestant areas.
Ended in chaos...everyone v. Hapsburgs
Started with Defenestration of Prague (aka best event ever)
France entered to fight against Hapsburgs

Peace of Westphalia

1/1/1648 - 12/31/1648

Religious Settlement: you can be whatever religion you want!
Northern Netherlands became independant (United Provinces of the Netherlands), Southern stayed with Spain.

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 Goals of CoV: War reparations, Balance of Power, Return legitimate rulers
Poland: Russia really wanted Poland. Almost went to war over this
Concert of Europe: involved almost everyone in Europe (also a big party)

German Confederation

1815 - 1817


Vienna was the center of music!
Robot: forced serfs to work 6 days a week and a lot of hours.

Battle of Vienna

1/1/1683 - 12/31/1863

Ottoman Turks attack Vienna
Jan Sobieski saves the day!

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction: allowed Maria Theresa to rule Austria, other countries couldn't invade

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Enlightened Reforms: reduced Robot, lessened restrictions of serfs

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia v. Austria (Prussia breaks Pragmatic Sanction)
Prussia won and took Silesia which is a terrible thing to fight over. Not worth it.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

On continent, Austria v. Prussia, fighting over Silesia again.
Prussia won!

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Son of Maria Theresa
Enlightened Reforms: Abolished serfdom, religious freedom (Even Jews!), controlled church, reduced taxes
What a good guy.


1821 - 1848

1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821–1835) & Ferdinand I (1835–1848)
Metternich System: conservative political polices
Carlsbad Decrees:imposed rigid discipline on German states and established restrictions on German Press
Hated: Nationalism and liberalism
Concert of Europe: kept balance of power

1848 Revolts

1/1/1848 - 12/31/1848

People wanted more liberal government
The gov was made slightly more liberal but not enough so Metternich fled
Rebellion put down by Franz Joseph


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

"The Soldier King" b/c Potsdam Giants and awesome military. Made Prussia "Sparta of the North"

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Enlightened Reforms: tax reforms and abolished serfdom
Pragmatic Sanction: broke it invading Austria to get Silesia. Dumb move.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria vs. Prussia
Prussia won and got Silesia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1765

On Continent: Austria v. Prussia
Prussia still wins.
Don't mess with Prussia.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

Philosopher and literary critic who was instrumental in forming Romanticism in Europe and German nationalism

Gross deutsch v. Kleine deutsch

1810 - 1820

Gross deutsch was a unified Germany including Austria
Klein deutsch was unified Germany sans Austria

George Friederick Hegel

1/1/1830 - 12/31/1830

Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences-1830
View of History: Every age has a thesis and an antithesis which culminate in a synthesis which in turn becomes the next thesis

Frankfurt Assembly

1/1/1848 - 12/31/1848

Provided for an elected parliament and would unify state as a German empire
The crown was offered to Frederick William IV but he rejected it b/c it was a "crown from the gutter"
No more nationalism. :(


Political Organization: individual city-states

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence b/c of rich bankers could be a patron of the arts

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1469

Cosmo di Medici ruled
Powerful b/c from wealthy banking family

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Illigitimate child of Pope Alexander VI
Image of Jesus based off of him
Controls Pope's army's and gets a lot of land
Machiavelli liked him because he tried to unite Italy

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Controls Florentine gov behind the scenes
Very rich banker
Patron to the arts

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He was a dominican friar who hated humanism and the Medicis and convinced people to burn a lot of priceless art (b/c it was too secular) in the Burning of the Vanities. Was eventually killed b/c he was too radical

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Took place in Rome b/c Popes had money


1/1/1517 - 12/31/1517

The Prince (1517): Said rulers should only be moral when it is beneficial. Otherwise, just appear moral. Better to be feared than loved.

End of Italian Renaisance

1/1/1527 - 12/31/1527

During the Hapsburg-Valois wars, Charles V (HR Emperor) came and sacked Rome.


1/1/1528 - 12/31/1528

Book of the Courtier (1528): told men how to be the ideal Renaissance man...they can do everything


1/1/1632 - 12/31/1632

Dialouge Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632)
Said the Earth goes around the sun
Not recieved well by Catholic church.
(Under house arrest)

Cesare Beccaria

1/1/1764 - 12/31/1764

On Crime and Punishment
Treat criminals better, take away death penalty
Terrible ideas really.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 Goals: Return legitimate monarchs, war reparations, balance of power
Italy was carved up and given to Austria


1820 - 1848

Unification of Italy!
Guiseppi Mazzini, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs all wanted unification


1/1/1848 - 12/31/1848

Unification was unsuccesful b/c everyone something different. Neo Guelfs wanted Catholic theocracy
Mazzini wanted democracy
Sardinians wanted constitutional monarchy

Guiseppi Mazzini

1/1/1848 - 12/31/1848

He was a true Romantic, the heart of Italy. His group was Young Italy and they wanted a democracy