Humanism: Ideas come from the ancient Greek and Romans...Humans have their own abilities and control their own destiny
It kept France Catholic with the Pope presiding over the council and the Pope recognizing the French King's authority over the Church in France.
She was the mother of 3 incompetent sons and so she had to rule for them. She tried really hard to be a politique but then she pretty much failed with the whole St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (killing all the Huguenots)
Catherine de Medici ordered an attack on a Huguenot wedding (Henry of Navarre's) and the Catholics murdered alot of Huguenots....The pope was ecstatic and rewarded the messenger with a bag of gold!
"Paris is well worth the mass." He changed between being a Catholic and Huguenot a lot... he did it really just to make the people happy. Edict of Nantes- Huguenots could worship but had to do it in little town of Huguenot majority...He was a politique because religion did not influence his governmental decisions (as seen in the switching of religions and edict of nantes)...He was stabbed to death by a crazy religious zealot!
Louis XIII let Richelieu rule for him. The French Academy was Richelieu's baby and they standardized the French language with the first dictionary.
1. Control of nobles - tears down their castles, limits their luxurious lifestyles
2. Hapsburgs - sends aid to the Dutch in the 30 years war
3. Huguenots - does not allow their cities to have fortification
Richielieu sends French Troops to the aid of the Dutch because he wants to destroy the Hapsburg's power
FRANCE EMERGES AS STRONGEST COUNTRY IN EUROPE
"I am the state!"
Economics: built Versailles, participated in numerous wars, and sold noble titles (creating large tax exempt class)
Religious Policy: Revoked the Edict of Nantes, CATHOLICISM!
Control of Nobles: made them live in Versailles, enterntained them, kept them tax exempt
Control of Huguenots: Revoked the Edict of Nantes
Crazy Charles II of Spain (Hapsburg) willed his throne to Phillip of Anjou (Louis XIV's relative) of France. Possibility of Spance?????
Peace of Utrecht: Spanish throne is now Bourbon but France and Spain can never become Spance
Famous Mistress: Madame de Pompador
Art Style: Rococo
Separation of Powers (different branches of government)
Prussia (and its allies) vs Austria (and its allies)
On Continent: Maria Theresa wants Silesia back
Off Continent: battle for colonies
Frances LOSES all colonies in America
Advocated for Freedom of Speech
"Crush the Thing" - Thing=Catholic Church....HE HATED IT!
General Will - the want of the majority of the people--should rule government
Education: leave children alone and just make sure they are safe
Anti-Enlightenment: Was against society and formal education...believed everyone was a noble savage and did not need to be taught-->everything is based on instinct not reason
Character: shy, easily swayed, dumb
Wife: Maria Antoinette...people hated her because she was Austrian and spent a lot of money (Madame Defecit)
Both were executed on charges of treason
France helped America to try to get back at Britain
France fell into massive debts because of it
Abee Sieyes - What is the 3rd estate author
Assignats - currency backed by church property
Civil Constitution of the Clergy - put the church completely under control of the government...peasants were mad
Constitution of 1791 - made it a constitutional monarchy
National Convention - legislative body
Committee of Public Safety - executive body headed by Robespierre
Reign of Terror - span of time that Robespierre went execution crazy with the guillotine-->anyone who was thought a traitor to the revolution
Thermidorian Reaction - reaction to finally overthrow Robespierre and all his craziness--Robespierre had started to question the integrity of some high up officials and because they wanted to not die....they killed Robespierre instead.
It was stable but corrupt...overthrown by Napoleon in the coup de 18 brumaire
Concordat of 1801 - Made Catholicism the religion of the masses (Catholics can now practice again!)
Napoleonic Code (1804) was enlightenment because it made everyone regardless of class pay equal taxes and provided more equal laws
Continental System (1806ish) - All his conqueored nations had to only trade with other French nations...it was aimed against the British
Peninsular War (1808-1812) - The Spanish Ulcer...drained Napoleon of lots of resources
Invasion of Russia - went bad...Russia practiced the scorched earth policy and then the winter murdered all Nap's trooops
Hundred Days (1815) - Nap came back from exile to open arms of the French people for 100 days
Waterloo (1815) - the final defeat of Nap by the British...Nap gets exiled for good
Louis XVI's brother
Charter of 1814 - French Constitution that established a constitutional monarchy and included many of the ideals of the french revolution
1. Balance of Powers 2. Legitimate monarchs restored to the throne 3. Compensation for war losses
France was represented by Talleyrand and France was treated very lientantly at first but after the 100 days they were more harsh.
Conservative --> worked to return to the ancient regime
July Ordinances: 1. dissolved the chamber of deputies 2. decreased the number of voters 3. controlled all the presses
People revolted!! July Revolution!!
Against Charles X
They erected numerous barricades across Paris!
called the "Citizen King" and his reign was known as the "Orlene Monarchy or the
He dressed like the people, Government is controlled by the wealthy middle class, reduces property qualifications, establishes the tri color flag, and abolishes the censorship
Ignored the demands of the urban worker and that caused the February rebellion
Against Louis Phillipe because he banns public banquets
Abdicates --> provisional government
Louis Blanc - social utopist
wanted national workshops that the government had to employ all citizens...wasn't enough money so it went really bad and all of them closed
4 days in June
Rioting against the closing of all the national workshops closing...government had betrayed the people...SOCIALISM!! it appeals to the poor
Eventually the government--> constiution of 1848 = Republic (2nd)
This was a republic..
ALL males had the right to vote
President was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (later becomes Nap III)
Heavily influenced by Marx...Socialism!
Gutenberg invented the printing press! This made information accessible to more people and increased literacy among people!
Believed in salvation through faith (sola fide)
Priesthood of all believers -- everyone is equal in the eyes of God
Conservative government beliefs - believed that peasants are subservient..fedualism is ok! Reaction to the Peasant Revolt shows this!
"The Universal Monarch"
From his mother's side: inherited Spain and overseas stuff
From his father's side: inherited HRE
When he "resigned" he gave his brother, Ferdinand the HRE and his son, Phillip II, Spain
A meeting called by Charles V telling Luther to recant
Luther said no..he wouldn't even show up..he just wrote a letter..they tried to then arrest him
Used Luther's belief of a "priesthood of all believers" that says everyone is equal in the eyes of God...if everyone is equal in the eyes of God then shouldn't they be equal in the eyes of common people? They thought so!
Luther was mmmaadddd! He was angry that they misinterpreted it....he intended for them to be equal to God but not to there fellow man...he told officials to just kill them all
It was the meeting of the Catholic church to reform some of their traditions....did NOT reform any beliefs...It was relatively successful though! The Church tried to make itself less corrupt..requiring priests to actually be educated, remain celibate, stopped indulgences, and did a few other things
Protestants (Lutheran Princes) VS Catholics (Charles V)
Ended in the Peace of Augsburg!
Cuius regio, eius religio
Every prince decided the religion of the people in their domain...could choose between Protestant (Lutheran) or Catholicism.....NO Calvinism
Protestant VS Catholic
Started with the Defenstration of Prague
Became All of Europe VS Hapsburg
France (Richelieu) aids the Protestants with troops because they hate the Hapsburg and want to lessen their power
Added Calvinism to accepted religions
Also gave the Netherlands (North) their independence
Loose association of Germanic States created by Napoleon
Created by the Congress of Vienna
Robot - forced labor
Vienna was the center for European Music
Ottomans VS HRE
The Polish King Jan Sobieski saved the day!
Issued the Pragmatic Sanction: Can't divide Hapsburg land...to ensure Maria Theresa would reign
Prussia (Fredererick II) VS Austria (Maria Theresa)
Frederick Won! Got Silesia!.....Maria Theresa was pretty mad..
1. Lightened the work load (robot)
England VS France (also took place in America--French and Indian War)
England wins and France is bitter --> reason for their involvement in the American Revolution
Mother: Maria Theresa
Enlightened Reforms: Really Radical and all were eventually undone
1. Religious Toleration - Allowed Jews to practice 2. Abolished Serfdom 3. Granted peasants the right to marry
1st Chancellor under the regins of Francis I and Ferdianad I
Metternich System: supression of nationalistic and liberalistic ideals...like censorship of newspapers
Carlsbad Decrees: No clubs, more censorship of everything
Concert of Europe: He orchestrated this...it was an alliance
2 things he hates: nationalism and liberalism
What do people want:
Hungarians want liberal gov
Bohemians want independence
Austrians want liberal gov
Italians want independence
The government got a slightly more liberal government
Franz Joseph puts down the rebellion
"The Soldier King"
Obsessed with the military....Prussia became the Sparta of the North....Potsdam Giants....He <3 tall people
Austria vs Prussia
Prussia won and got Silesia
1. Abolished serfdom 2. No capital punishment 3. Protected religious minorities
Pragmatic Sanction: Broke it - took Silesia from Maria Theresa
Britian and Allies vs France and Aliies
an early German romantic author ( the "storm and stress" aka strum and drang movement) and all about German Nationalism
Published Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences
Theory on the progression of history: history is based on the events of extraordinary men not on just little stuff
They wrote a new consitution that elected parliament members and called for a unified Germanic Empire
They offered the crown to Frederick William IV
FAILURE Frederick William IV didn't want the crown because it was offered to him from elected officials and not the princes (therefore from the "gutter")
Gross - big
unify all Germanic areas including Austria
Kleine - little
unify all Germanic areas except Austria
Government Structure: consisted of many city-states...all were independent of eachother...very competetive between them all
Begins in Florence
The Medici familly ruled....It was powerful because they were so wealthy
He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and he wanted to unite Italy......He is the perfect ruler in the eyes of Machiavelli because he would do anything in his power, no matter what the people thought, to unify Italy.
"The Magnificient" He ruled over the people as a major player in the Medici family.
He was a guy that criticized everyone (humanism is bad) and he didn't like the worldiliness of the Medici family...He was burned at the stake!
It took place in Rome
"It is better to be feared than loved." To be a good ruler sometimes you have to be ruthless and immoral...even if the people hate you....unification!!
HRE Emperor Charles V invades thus ending the Renaissance
It describes the ideal Renaissance man and woman....Renaissance men must be well versed in all subjects and women should be silent, well mannered, and pretty
He said that the Earth revolves around the Sun.....received badly!! Catholics were very angry that he went against the Bible....wanted him to recant...and he did..but with sass
It said that they should abolish the death penalty and treat prisoners better
It is the Unification of Italy
Young Italy, Sardinians, Neo Guelfs wanted unification
The revolutions failed because they were divided by 3 groups who wanted 3 different government structures
1. Young Italy = Democracy
2. Sardinians = Const. Monarchy
3. Neo Geulfs = Cath Theocracy
.....soooo they couldnt all decide therefore no unification
Leader of the Young Italy, he wanted democracy