The Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Humanism: Ideas come from the ancient Greek and Romans...Humans have their own abilities and control their own destiny

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna

Jan 1516 - July 1516

It kept France Catholic with the Pope presiding over the council and the Pope recognizing the French King's authority over the Church in France.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She was the mother of 3 incompetent sons and so she had to rule for them. She tried really hard to be a politique but then she pretty much failed with the whole St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (killing all the Huguenots)

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

January 1572 - March 1572

Catherine de Medici ordered an attack on a Huguenot wedding (Henry of Navarre's) and the Catholics murdered alot of Huguenots....The pope was ecstatic and rewarded the messenger with a bag of gold!

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth the mass." He changed between being a Catholic and Huguenot a lot... he did it really just to make the people happy. Edict of Nantes- Huguenots could worship but had to do it in little town of Huguenot majority...He was a politique because religion did not influence his governmental decisions (as seen in the switching of religions and edict of nantes)...He was stabbed to death by a crazy religious zealot!

Louis XIII/Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Louis XIII let Richelieu rule for him. The French Academy was Richelieu's baby and they standardized the French language with the first dictionary.

1. Control of nobles - tears down their castles, limits their luxurious lifestyles
2. Hapsburgs - sends aid to the Dutch in the 30 years war
3. Huguenots - does not allow their cities to have fortification

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richielieu sends French Troops to the aid of the Dutch because he wants to destroy the Hapsburg's power

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"I am the state!"
Bad at
Economics: built Versailles, participated in numerous wars, and sold noble titles (creating large tax exempt class)
Religious Policy: Revoked the Edict of Nantes, CATHOLICISM!
Control of Nobles: made them live in Versailles, enterntained them, kept them tax exempt
Control of Huguenots: Revoked the Edict of Nantes

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Crazy Charles II of Spain (Hapsburg) willed his throne to Phillip of Anjou (Louis XIV's relative) of France. Possibility of Spance?????

Peace of Utrecht: Spanish throne is now Bourbon but France and Spain can never become Spance

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Famous Mistress: Madame de Pompador
Art Style: Rococo

Montesquieu (publication of Spirit of Laws)

January 1748 - March 1748

Separation of Powers (different branches of government)

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Prussia (and its allies) vs Austria (and its allies)
On Continent: Maria Theresa wants Silesia back
Off Continent: battle for colonies
Frances LOSES all colonies in America

Voltaire (publication of Candide)

Jan 1759 - March 1759

Advocated for Freedom of Speech
"Crush the Thing" - Thing=Catholic Church....HE HATED IT!

Rousseau (Publication of The Social Contrac & Emilet)

Jan 1762 - Feb 1762

General Will - the want of the majority of the people--should rule government
Education: leave children alone and just make sure they are safe
Anti-Enlightenment: Was against society and formal education...believed everyone was a noble savage and did not need to be taught-->everything is based on instinct not reason

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Character: shy, easily swayed, dumb
Wife: Maria Antoinette...people hated her because she was Austrian and spent a lot of money (Madame Defecit)
Both were executed on charges of treason

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped America to try to get back at Britain
France fell into massive debts because of it

National Assembly/ Legistlative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes - What is the 3rd estate author
Assignats - currency backed by church property
Civil Constitution of the Clergy - put the church completely under control of the government...peasants were mad
Constitution of 1791 - made it a constitutional monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention - legislative body
Committee of Public Safety - executive body headed by Robespierre
Reign of Terror - span of time that Robespierre went execution crazy with the guillotine-->anyone who was thought a traitor to the revolution
Thermidorian Reaction - reaction to finally overthrow Robespierre and all his craziness--Robespierre had started to question the integrity of some high up officials and because they wanted to not die....they killed Robespierre instead.

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

It was stable but corrupt...overthrown by Napoleon in the coup de 18 brumaire


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 - Made Catholicism the religion of the masses (Catholics can now practice again!)
Napoleonic Code (1804) was enlightenment because it made everyone regardless of class pay equal taxes and provided more equal laws
Continental System (1806ish) - All his conqueored nations had to only trade with other French was aimed against the British

Peninsular War (1808-1812) - The Spanish Ulcer...drained Napoleon of lots of resources
Invasion of Russia - went bad...Russia practiced the scorched earth policy and then the winter murdered all Nap's trooops
Hundred Days (1815) - Nap came back from exile to open arms of the French people for 100 days
Waterloo (1815) - the final defeat of Nap by the British...Nap gets exiled for good


1814 - 1824

Louis XVI's brother
Charter of 1814 - French Constitution that established a constitutional monarchy and included many of the ideals of the french revolution

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals:
1. Balance of Powers 2. Legitimate monarchs restored to the throne 3. Compensation for war losses
France was represented by Talleyrand and France was treated very lientantly at first but after the 100 days they were more harsh.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative --> worked to return to the ancient regime
July Ordinances: 1. dissolved the chamber of deputies 2. decreased the number of voters 3. controlled all the presses
People revolted!! July Revolution!!

July Revolutions

January 1830 - Feb 1830

Against Charles X
They erected numerous barricades across Paris!

Louis Phillipe

1830 - 1848

called the "Citizen King" and his reign was known as the "Orlene Monarchy or the
He dressed like the people, Government is controlled by the wealthy middle class, reduces property qualifications, establishes the tri color flag, and abolishes the censorship
Ignored the demands of the urban worker and that caused the February rebellion

February Revolt

February 1848 - May 1848

Against Louis Phillipe because he banns public banquets
Abdicates --> provisional government

Provisional Government

March 1848 - May 1848

Louis Blanc - social utopist
wanted national workshops that the government had to employ all citizens...wasn't enough money so it went really bad and all of them closed

June Days

June 1 1848 - June 5 1848

4 days in June
Rioting against the closing of all the national workshops closing...government had betrayed the people...SOCIALISM!! it appeals to the poor
Eventually the government--> constiution of 1848 = Republic (2nd)

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

This was a republic..
ALL males had the right to vote
President was Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (later becomes Nap III)
Heavily influenced by Marx...Socialism!

HRE (Germanic States)


Jan 1465 - March 1465

Gutenberg invented the printing press! This made information accessible to more people and increased literacy among people!


Jan 1517 - Feb 1517

Believed in salvation through faith (sola fide)
Priesthood of all believers -- everyone is equal in the eyes of God
Conservative government beliefs - believed that peasants are subservient..fedualism is ok! Reaction to the Peasant Revolt shows this!

Charles V

1519 - 1556

"The Universal Monarch"
From his mother's side: inherited Spain and overseas stuff
From his father's side: inherited HRE
When he "resigned" he gave his brother, Ferdinand the HRE and his son, Phillip II, Spain

Diet of Worms

Jan 1521 - Feb 1521

A meeting called by Charles V telling Luther to recant
Luther said no..he wouldn't even show up..he just wrote a letter..they tried to then arrest him

German Peasants Revolt

1524 - 1525

Used Luther's belief of a "priesthood of all believers" that says everyone is equal in the eyes of God...if everyone is equal in the eyes of God then shouldn't they be equal in the eyes of common people? They thought so!
Luther was mmmaadddd! He was angry that they misinterpreted it....he intended for them to be equal to God but not to there fellow man...he told officials to just kill them all

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

It was the meeting of the Catholic church to reform some of their traditions....did NOT reform any beliefs...It was relatively successful though! The Church tried to make itself less corrupt..requiring priests to actually be educated, remain celibate, stopped indulgences, and did a few other things

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestants (Lutheran Princes) VS Catholics (Charles V)
Ended in the Peace of Augsburg!

Peace of Augsburg

Jan 1555 - Feb 1555

Cuius regio, eius religio
Every prince decided the religion of the people in their domain...could choose between Protestant (Lutheran) or Catholicism.....NO Calvinism

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

Protestant VS Catholic
Started with the Defenstration of Prague
Became All of Europe VS Hapsburg
France (Richelieu) aids the Protestants with troops because they hate the Hapsburg and want to lessen their power

Peace of Westphalia

March 1648 - April 1648

Added Calvinism to accepted religions
Also gave the Netherlands (North) their independence

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Loose association of Germanic States created by Napoleon

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Created by the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820
  1. Balance of Power 2. Legitimate monarch restored to the thrones 3. Compensation for war losses Poland was the source of much dispute...almost caused a war! Russia really wanted it but only ended up getting a little bit Concert of Europe - an alliance of powers that would try to keep a balance of powers across Europe...was kept around until WWI

Austria (Gemanic States)

Robot - forced labor
Vienna was the center for European Music

Battle of Vienna

Jan 1 1683 - Jan 2 1683

Ottomans VS HRE
The Polish King Jan Sobieski saved the day!

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Issued the Pragmatic Sanction: Can't divide Hapsburg ensure Maria Theresa would reign

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia (Fredererick II) VS Austria (Maria Theresa)
Frederick Won! Got Silesia!.....Maria Theresa was pretty mad..

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Enlightened Reforms:
1. Lightened the work load (robot)

7 Years War

1756 - 1763

England VS France (also took place in America--French and Indian War)
England wins and France is bitter --> reason for their involvement in the American Revolution

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Mother: Maria Theresa
Enlightened Reforms: Really Radical and all were eventually undone
1. Religious Toleration - Allowed Jews to practice 2. Abolished Serfdom 3. Granted peasants the right to marry


1821 - 1848

1st Chancellor under the regins of Francis I and Ferdianad I
Metternich System: supression of nationalistic and liberalistic censorship of newspapers
Carlsbad Decrees: No clubs, more censorship of everything
Concert of Europe: He orchestrated was an alliance
2 things he hates: nationalism and liberalism

1848 Revolts

March 2 1848 - March 4 1848

What do people want:
Hungarians want liberal gov
Bohemians want independence
Austrians want liberal gov
Italians want independence
The government got a slightly more liberal government
Franz Joseph puts down the rebellion

Prussia (Germanic States)

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

"The Soldier King"
Obsessed with the military....Prussia became the Sparta of the North....Potsdam Giants....He <3 tall people

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria vs Prussia
Prussia won and got Silesia

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Enlightened Reforms:
1. Abolished serfdom 2. No capital punishment 3. Protected religious minorities
Pragmatic Sanction: Broke it - took Silesia from Maria Theresa

7 Years War

1756 - 1763

Britian and Allies vs France and Aliies
Britian WINS

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

an early German romantic author ( the "storm and stress" aka strum and drang movement) and all about German Nationalism

George Friederick Hegel

Jan 1830 - Feb 1830

Published Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences
Theory on the progression of history: history is based on the events of extraordinary men not on just little stuff

Frankfurt Assembly

Jan 1848 - Feb 1848

They wrote a new consitution that elected parliament members and called for a unified Germanic Empire
They offered the crown to Frederick William IV
FAILURE Frederick William IV didn't want the crown because it was offered to him from elected officials and not the princes (therefore from the "gutter")

Gross deutsh vs kleine deutsch debate

1900 - 1901

Gross - big
unify all Germanic areas including Austria
Kleine - little
unify all Germanic areas except Austria


Political Organization of Italy


Government Structure: consisted of many city-states...all were independent of eachother...very competetive between them all

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Begins in Florence

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1470

The Medici familly ruled....It was powerful because they were so wealthy

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and he wanted to unite Italy......He is the perfect ruler in the eyes of Machiavelli because he would do anything in his power, no matter what the people thought, to unify Italy.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

"The Magnificient" He ruled over the people as a major player in the Medici family.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

He was a guy that criticized everyone (humanism is bad) and he didn't like the worldiliness of the Medici family...He was burned at the stake!

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

It took place in Rome

Machiavelli (The Prince)


"It is better to be feared than loved." To be a good ruler sometimes you have to be ruthless and immoral...even if the people hate you....unification!!

End of the Renaissance


HRE Emperor Charles V invades thus ending the Renaissance

Castiglione (Book of the Courtier)


It describes the ideal Renaissance man and woman....Renaissance men must be well versed in all subjects and women should be silent, well mannered, and pretty

Galileo (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems)


He said that the Earth revolves around the Sun.....received badly!! Catholics were very angry that he went against the Bible....wanted him to recant...and he did..but with sass

Cesare Beccaria (On Crime and Punishment)


It said that they should abolish the death penalty and treat prisoners better


1800 - 1850

It is the Unification of Italy
Young Italy, Sardinians, Neo Guelfs wanted unification

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820
  1. Balance of Power
  2. Reinstate legitimate monarchs to the throne
  3. War Repirations Big chunks of it went to Austria for War Repiratoins



The revolutions failed because they were divided by 3 groups who wanted 3 different government structures
1. Young Italy = Democracy
2. Sardinians = Const. Monarchy
3. Neo Geulfs = Cath Theocracy
.....soooo they couldnt all decide therefore no unification

Giuseppe Mazzini


Leader of the Young Italy, he wanted democracy