Women Paying Throughout History



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600



he was amazing. He started the printing press and is a total boss.


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1816

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna

1516 - 1517

KEPT FRANCE CATHOLIC. Francis I and Pope Leo X

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Catherine de Medici ruled for her sons because of their incompetence. Responsible for the St Bartholemew day massacre, certainly not a politique although tried.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Catherine de Medici ordered the death of many huguenots. The pope loved this, giving the messenger a bag of gold.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Paris is well worth a mass. changed religions about a billion times. Edict of Nantes allowed huguenots to remain but in centralized areas. Politique because he separated religion and state. stabbed by a religious zealot.

Louis XIII/Richelieu(1624/1642)

1610 - 1643

turned power over to cardinal Richelieu, French academy started educational reform in the country, the nobles were considered the biggest evil by Richelieu, then Hapsburgs and Huguenots next.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Louis XIII sends in troops against hapsburgs because he hates them all. ended with the peace of westphalia. By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

I am the state. he spent ridiculously in order to impress other countries, such as Versailles. dispersed huguenots. required nobles to live with him at Versailles for several months.

War of SPanish Succession

1702 - 1713

the dying king of Spain (who was also not exactly right in the head) willed the throne to the nephew of Louis XIV. Nobody wants a Spance, so everyone pulls together to make sure that doesnt happen.

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Baroque art style. Madame de pompadour

Voltaire (candide publ. 1759)



Montesquieu (Spirit of Laws publ. 1748)


there should be a three branch government. Balance of powers.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia. but Britain won, because France and Britain fought alongside them but across the Atlantic over colonies. Frane lost on that one.

Rousseau (Social Contract, Publ. 1762)


Rousseau was considered against the enlightenment because he believed that education should be saught for in nature. Basically, he was a naturalist while others thought of progress.

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Marie Antoinette was his wife. French hated her because she was Austrian. He was beheaded by Robespierre. Treason.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped the Americans to get back at Britain. Left them in incredible debt.

National Assembly/ Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Aee Sieyes (prayer books) , assignats, civil const of the Clergy (Made catholics real angry), Constriction of 1791( Constitutional Monarchy)

1st French REpublic

1792 - 1795

National Convention,Committee of Public Safety, Reign of terror, Thermadorian reaction

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

formative government after committee of public safety. failure like everything french.


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 enforced Napoleons codes and other things. the Napoleonic Code was enlightened because it really tried to equalize all men under the law through taxes. The continental system was basically mercantilism against England.

Peninsular War

1808 - 1812


1814 - 1824

charter of 1814 significantly reduced the power of the monarchy.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

three goals: compensation, not to punish france, balance of power. Tallyrand represented France. France was treated fairly well, but after Napoleon came back and all, things were a bit harsher.

Hundred Days




Charles X

1824 - 1830

conservative, issued the july ordinances which limited the rights of french people in an effort to quell some negative feedback of his reign. Ended in the july revolutions

July Revolutions


reaction to the July Ordinances. People hated the restrictions put on them by Charles X

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

known as the July Monarchy. He was the last king to rule france, although Napoleon III would be its last monarch.

Second French Republic

1848 - 1852

This was a republic with a constitution and established president. Jacques Charles Dupont was the first president.

February Revolt


The middle class got angry at Louis Philippe for banning banquets and other fundraisers. Ultimately the middle class revolted against the monarchy. again.

June Days


the June days were a series of revolts staged against the second republic in defense of the national workshops established by them. In its place, a representative government was established supported by a president.

Provisional Government


Louis Blanc was president of the new legislative body set up at Luxembourg palace. This group established work houses and other employment opportunities for those out of work. Louis Blanc wanted to promote teamwork and cooperation in order to get things back on track. he was a socialist.

Holy Roman Empire

Martin Luther


salvation through faith meant that all could enter heaven as long as you believed in Jesus Christ. The priesthood of all believers is another name for this, as it was believed that all were equal in the eyes of God. Despite this equality in faith, Luther did NOT support equality in government.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

Universal monarch. Conquered the lands he had by the end of his reign. Gave the HRE to Ferdinand and gave spain to Philip II when he retired to a monastary.

Diet of Worms


The Diet of Worms was a meeting between Charles V and Martin Luther in an attempt to break up Luthers religion. This failed, and Luther fled to the shelter of a nobleman.

German Peasants Revolt


Peasant revolted against nobles with the belief of equality spread by Luthers religion. Luther did not support this, and was deeply conservative in political terms. wrote "On the murderous and theiving horde" as retaliation to the group.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Basically the Catholic Church started to realize they pretty much went against all values in the bible. They met to try and change that, reforming many manners of the church regarding priesthood, teaching priests, and other things. Very successful and countered the revolution pretty well.

Schmalkaldic Wars

1546 - 1548

Armies of Charles V fought the Lutherans. Ended with the Peace of Augsburg.

Peace of Augsburg


the princes religion could decide the religion of his region. cuius regio, eius religio (his land, his religion)

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Fought between Catholic Hapsburgs and Protestants. fought at first between factions inside the HRE, but then France came along and made it more about Hapsburg vs. Huguenot. resulted in the Peace of Wesphalia

Peace of Westphalia


Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

three goals of the congress: not punishing France too hard, balance of power, restoring conservative governments. Poland was a big deal, everyone wanted to do something different with it. Ultimately a war almost broke out over it. Russia got a slice of it and then the rest was its own country for a while. Concert of Europe: BALANCE OF POWA!!

German Confederation

1815 - 1871


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

"The Soldier King" he goes by this because he created the greatest trained army on the planet at the time. obsessed with military prowess.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Fought against Austria in order to take a slice of Silesia. Ultimately Prussia succeeds in its goal.

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

highly disagreed with the pragmatic sanction as he wanted a slice of Silesia.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

Herder was a literary critic and philosopher.

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch

1800 - 1840

Basically should prussia be more or less german

George Friederick Hegel


published "Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences"which is basically really awesome, because its philosophical and groundbreaking and all that jazz

Frankfurt Assembly


They wanted basic rights that were offered with the Napoleonic Code. Once established they offered the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, but he refused on the grounds the princes did not offer it so it doesnt really count or mean anything to him. its just the people. kind of a bad guy.


Battle of Vienna


The Ottoman Empire was making its way through Europe, however this battle stopped them. Jann Yovieska came in, fought against the turks, and won. he was a real top dog.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction: hapsburg lands would stay the same, then Maria Theresa would take them over.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic Sanction: Hapsburg lands would stay as they were, but then Maria Theresa would come in and take them.

maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

she was all around very effective and considered an enlightened despot. She abolished serfdom.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Hapsburg vs. French/Prussian forces. All over whether or not Maria Theresa was eligible to take over the Hapsburg throne being a woman. Also it was mainly a big power struggle of Hapsburg holdings. Austria won, but Prussia took a slice of Silesia and called it quits.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs. Prussia. Also Great Britain vs. France in the Americas. Basically Great Britain wins because of her holdings in North America growing rapidly now.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

his mother was Maria Theresa. He was considered a great enlightened despot.


1821 - 1848

Led the discussions at the conference of Vienna. believed in the equal balance of power in Europe. was a diehard conservative.

1848 revolts


people wanted free speech and voting rights. The government laid the smack down on them.


Political organization of Italy- the country was organized into city states like Papal states, etc.

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

The Early Renaissance first began in Fluorence

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1470

The Medici family ruled, specifically Lorenzo. Its so powerful because there is a strong banking community in Florence and they have all the money and power.

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

Attempted to unify Italy through conquest and war. Machiavelli loved him because he was all for unification and supression and Machiavelli wants that.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Lorenzo de Medici ruled Florence and was a part of an accomplished banking family. Lorenzo funded the Renaissance in Fluorence.

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

Savonarola hated humanism, worldly things, etc. he was burned at the stake.

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

The High Renaissance took place in Rome.

Machiavelli (The Prince, pub. 1513)


basically a handbook for all totalitarian rulers.

End of Italian Renaissance


When Charles V invaded Italy

Castiglione (Book of the Courtier, pub. 1528)


About the typical renaissance man and woman. women pay.

Galileo (Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems, publ. 1632)


Believes that the sun is the center of the solar system. Catholics got ANGRY.

Cesare Beccaria (On Crime and Punishment, pub. 1764)


abolish the death penalty and treat prisoners better.


1800 - 1850

This is the unification of italy. the three groups unifying were Young Italy, Sardinians, and Neo Guelfs.

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Parts of Italy were given to Austria as war reparations.

Giuseppe Mazzini


leader of Young Italy. He wanted democracy.

Unification events in 1848


they couldnt be effective because the three groups couldnt unify on anything.