Issued by Francis I, kept France Catholic. French kings recognized Pope's authority over Church Councils in exchange for the Pope recognizing the French King's authority over the French Church.
She ruled for her three stupid sons. She tried to be a poltitque but was talked into ordering the St. Bartholomew's day massacre to get rid of all the huganots. She wasn't a strong leader which lead to the war of the three heneries.
Catherine of Medici order all the Hugonots that had gathered in Paris for a weddiding to be killed. When the pope heard, he gave the messager a bag of gold.
"Paris is well worth a mass" he flipped back and forth between Huguenot and Catholicism. While he ended up Catholic, He ordered the Edict of Nantes to allow Huguenots to worship. He was a Politique because he changed his religion in order to be king. He was killed by a religious zealots in his carriage.
Turned power over to Richelieu who created the French Academy that created the first dictionary. He them took power from the nobles by knocking down their castles and taking away their fun lifestyles. He supported the Protestants in the Thirty Years War in order take down the Hapsburgs. He took away the walls on the huguenot pockets.
Richelieu sent troops so that he could weaken the Hapsburgs even though he was fighting against the Catholics now. France is now the strongest country in Europe
I am the state. He was bad econ because he made nobles of the robe, was in a bunch of wars, and spent lots of money. He made the huguenots convert. He forsced the nobles to live at versisells.
Charles II of Spain tried to will the throne to Philip of Anjou, who the nephew of Louis XIV. Everyone besides France won in the Treaty of Utrench.
Madame du Pompadur was his famous mistress that held big salons. His art style was rococo
Wrote the Spirit of the Laws about how governmnet should have three branches with checks and balances.
Austeria and their allies against Prussia and their allies. France lost terretory in north America
published Candide about how everyone should have free speech except for the Church,"crush the thing"
Published Emile about how the General will of the people should be heard.He believed that people should learn thru expereince which means that he didnt beleive in the normal education and logic of everyone else.
He was indesisive and was married to Marie Antonette whom the French hated for her extravagent lifestyle. He was excuted during the French revolution for treason.
The french where mad at england due to the seven year wars. It helped put them in massive debt.
Abee Sieyes wrote the thrid state about the lower class of france during the french revolution. Assignates was the money that French printed. Civile Constitution of the puts the church under gov control. Cons. of 1791 made france constitutional monarch
National Convention- legeslative body that had committees like the committee of public safety that caused the reign of terror and was run by robesperrie.the reign of terror lead to Thermidorian Reaction which everyone wanted to calm down.
Oligarchy, corrupt and stuff
He signed the Concordat of 1801 that allowed Catholisim back into Franch His Napoleonic code was enlightened because it allowed for universal male sufferage and education reforms. He started going down hill witht he Peninsular against Spain and the failed invasion of Russia. He came back from exile in the 100 days but was utimtaly defeated at waterloo by the brits.
He was Louis the XVI's nephew or something and he signed the Charter of 1814 which was a constitution.
Goals- Restore balance of power, surround France with strong countries, and to restore to the acient reigme. Talleyrand was the rep at COV for France and he gt some stuff back and played a major role.
He was a super conservative and passed the July ordinances that dissolved the chamber of deputies created by the Charter of 1814, decreased the number of voters, and restricted the press. People then revolted and he fled to England like a girl.
Against Charles X. The people barricaded the streets and were like WHOOT SOCIALISM
"The Citizen King" He tried to be cool but he ignored the needs and demands of the urban workers and they revolted and he fled to England like a lil girl
Louis Blanc was in charge and he tried to get everyone a job in state run factories. There weren't enough jobs so he started handing out paychecks and then the money ran out. So people revolted again
Against Louis Philippe because he ignored the urban workers and his PM Guizot outlawed public banquets.
four days in June that called for socalism and lead to a republic
Another republic. All males could vote. Louis Napoleon Bonapart was the pres. Heavily influnced by socalism!!
He made the printing press which is cool case now you can spread stuff around, like for example the 95 thesis.
Luther posted his 95 thesis against the Catholic church. These spread throughout Europe. They talked about how you could only be saved by the grace of God and that there is a priesthood of all believers, meaning that everyone is the same in the eyes of God. On governmnet, he was conservative and did not beleive that everyone was equal.
Charles V, aka the Universal Monarch, inherited Spain from mom and HRE from dad. After he retired to a monistary, he gave Spain to his son and HRE to his brother.
Charles V wanted Luther to recant but he didn't so he had to run and hide with some German Princes.
They used Luther's teachings to justify equality amongst all classes. Luther was not amused and wrote "On the theiving and murderous hordes" about how equality is stupid and ya'll need to learn your place.
The Church was trying to reform itself. It mostly reaffirmed itself and stuff but it stopped some of the corruption which is always good.
The protestant leagues v the Catholic princes. It resulted in the Peace of Sugsburg that allowed the Princes to be Protestant but you couldn't be calivinist.
Princes could choose for their people if they wanted to be Catholic or Protestant. Cuius regio, eius religio he who rules, choose
Started with the Defenestration of Prague. So some people got made that the Peace of Augsburg did not include Calivinism. It starts out Catholics v Protestants but that ended when Richalue entered to fight the Hapsburgs. Basically it was a free for all.
http://go.grolier.com/map?id=mh00046&pid=go Religious setlement basically says that you can be what you want to be. The Netherlands split. The northern part became the united provience of the Netherlands and the southern part stayed with Spain.
Three goals: War reperations, balance of Power, and return to legit rulers. Poland got broken up and Russia swallowed most of it. It was a Consert of Europe because it was the international scale.
Vienna was also the center of music (Motzart)
Robot- workers had lots of sucky hours and long days
The Ottamen Turks attacked Vienna and Polish king sobieski saved the day
He made the Pragmatic Sanction so that his daughter, Maria Thearsa, could rule after he died.
She reduced hours and work required by robot and was generally a better person than everyone before her.
Prussia breaks the Pragmatic Sanction and invaded Austria, specifically Silesia. Prussia wins!!!
Austria and Prussia on contenent- fighting over Silesia. Off contenet-Austrias allys (FR. Adn Russia) v prussia's allies(B.)
Treaty of Paris 1763 no major changes in Europe
Son of Maria Thereasa. He freed serfs, allowed religious freedom, even for the Jews, and was cool. But then when he died everything went back to the way it was before so that sucks.
Metternich system-censored everything, no religious tolarnace, and supress revolutions. Carlsbad decree- stopped more press. He hates nationalism and liberalism.
They people wanted a liberal government but then Franz joseph put it down and returned it to conservatism
"Solider King" cause he likes Gaints and stuff. But really, he made Prussia the Sparta of the north and completely reorginized everything.
Another Enlighted guy, took the pressure off of workers and said everyone but jews can practice. He ignored the Pragmatic Sanction though and grabbed Silsesa from Austria.
Austria v Prussia. Prussia invaded to get Silesia and won.
Prussia v Austria roud two. Prussia wins again.
Tried to grow German nationalism during the Enlightment
Debate over Austria Being apart of a unifies Germany. Gross said that they should be and Kleine said they shouldn't be
Beleived that all of history was just build up and then clashes. It was a cycle of thesis then coflict.
A get-together of elected parliment that wrote a consitatution and offered the crown to Fredrick William the IV who refused because he thought the constitution violated the rights of individual german states.
Organized into city states.
It began in Florance sue to the rich bankers that could be patrons of the arts. Humaniam- Power of the individual
The Medicis rules and they were powerful cause they were banking family with tons of money.
He was the illegetimate son of the Pope Alex VI. He controls the Pope's armies and attacks a bunch places to get land for the pope. Machiavelli liked him because he tried to unite all of Italy
He controlled the govern,mnet behind the sences and was a patrone of the arts. so thats cool
He burned art because he did not like the idea of renaissance and he is a jerk. Lots of people burned their own art .
It takes place in Rome and the Popes started to comession works of art.
He thought it was better for a ruler to be mean sot that he could have more power. He also wanted to unite Italy
Charles V came and sacked Rome because hes a jerk
He described the renaissance mand as someone who was excellent at everything
The Earth goes around the sun and he calle dthe Pope an idiot and thus he was put under house arrest.
He argued that there should be a death penalty or torture. You sould also try to reform crimnials
3 goals: Balance of power, war reperations, return legit monarchs to the throne. Italy was cut up and served to Austria.
United everyone. Yound Italy (wanted democracy), Sardinians (con. mon.), and Neo Guelfs (Catholic theocracy)
He wanted to unite Italy. He was the leader of Young Italy, you could not be 30 or over if you wanted to be part of it.
Unification was unsuccessful because nobody argeed on what they wanted to there was no full, driving force.