500 years of Europeans killing each other.

I think if you would've proposed gun control laws during these 500 years, you would've been shot. No, not because they didn't want that idea to be spread around Europe, rather, it would be just because they hadn't killed anybody in a while.

Main

Eras

Renaissance

1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

begins in Florence

Humanism

1450 - 1527

humans could control their own destiny.

Reformation

1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800

Absolutism

1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction and Romanticism

1815 - 1850

France

Concordat of Bologna

1516

It was an agreement between the Catholic Church and French government that allowed the French King to appoint Bishops in France while the Pope was recognized to stronger than councils

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She ruled for her sons and tried to be a politique in her rule. She was not successful at being a politique

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

This massacre happened during the wedding of a Huguenot noble, and many protestants were killed. It was ordered by Catherine de Medici. The Pope gave the messenger that brought the news a bag of gold, he was so happy.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

His famous quote is: "Paris is well worth the mass"
In order to keep the throne, he kept flip flopping from Catholicism to Protestant. He decreed the Edict of Nantes, which allowed Protestants to worship freely. He was a politique because he was very religiously tolerant. He was killed by a religious Catholic zealot, who stabbed him while he was in his carriage.

Louis XIII ( Richelieu 1624-1642)

1610 - 1643

He gave power to Cardinal Richelieu. Richelieu started the French Academy, which made an official French dictionary. In order to control the nobles, he took their castles from them. He was against the Hapsburgs in the Thirty Years War. He forced the Huguenots to take down their city walls.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richeleui sends French troops to Spain to fight the Hapsburgs because they were very powerful and they want them to be weakened. By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe.

Lous XIV

1643 - 1715

His famous quote was: "I am the State"
He was bad at economics because he spent a lot of money to build extravagant things, such as Versailles. In regards to his religious policy, he was really Catholic. To control the nobles, he forced all of them to move to Versaille. To control the Huguenots, he revoked the Edict of Nantes.

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

This war was caused by the possible creation of Spance. None of the other countries wanted that much land and power to be under one crown. France lost, and the smaller allied countries won

Louis XV

1715 - 1744

His art style was Rococo. Madam de Pompadour was his famous mistress

Montesqueiu (Spirit of Laws publ. 1748)

1748

his views on government: Three branches and they all check and balance each other

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia. On European continent, they were fighting over territory. Off of the European continent, Austria's allies (France and Russia) vs Prussia's ally (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. To end it, Treaty of Paris (1763), no major changes in Europe. Off the continent, Britain got France's colonies in North America.

Voltaire (publ. 1759 Candide)

1759

He believed in free speech. He hated the Church

Roussiau (Social Contract, Emile, publ. 1762)

1762

On general will (Social Contract), he believed that people were noble savages. On education (Emile), he believed that everybody should learn from experience, and no formal education. He was considered against the enlightenment because none of his theories went with the enlightenment values

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

He was easily influenced. His wife was Marie Antoinnette and she was hated because she was so disconnected from the people. Louis was beheaded at the guillotine for treason

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

France helped America in order to get revenge on Britain. This war bankrupted France

National Assembly/Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes- an author from the 3rd estate
Assignats- the new french currency backed by seized church lands
Civil Constitution of the Clergy- put the clergy under the payroll of the state
Constitution of 1791- made france a constitutional monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National Convention- legislature that governed France
Committee of Public Safety- the head of the governing body
Reign of Terror- period of time where thousands of people were killed because they were suspected to be anti-revolutionary
Thermidorean Reaction- reaction to Robespierre from the reign of terror. Robespierre is beheaded face up

Directory, Oligarchy

1795 - 1799

New governing body of France. This is where Napoleon began to gain power.

Napoleon

1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801 said that it was legal to be Catholic again. The Napoleonic Code (1804) was an enlightened code because there were education reforms and leadership was based on merit. Meritocracy.Continental system (1806) was a form of economic warfare against the British that said that nobody in Europe could trade with Britain. The Peninsular War (1808-1812) came when the French tried to force the Continental system on Spain. It consisted of guerilla warfare by the Spanish troops and drained the resources and money of France. The invasion of Russia was bad. Napoleon went into Russia with over 600,000 troops and marched into a smoldering Moscow. By the time they returned to France, over half of the troops died from the extreme cold and hunger. The hundred days (1815) was when Napoleon came out of exile and reclaimed control of France. He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo (1815) and sent into exile for the last time

Louis XVIII

1814 - 1824

he was Louis XVI's brother. The Charter of 1814 was a Constitution that the Congress of Vienna required Louis XVIII to propose before he was returned to power

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals of the Congress of Vienna- prevent further war, give compensation to winning countries for lost resources, and return old rulers to power. France's representative was Tallyrand. France was treated very generously in the terms that they had to follow.

Charles X

1824 - 1830

He was conservative. The July Ordinances were a series of decrees that originally were intended to quell the people of France, but the exact opposit happened

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

he was called the July Monarch and his reign was known as the "Bourgeois Monarchy" or the "Citizen Monarchy". He was different because he acted like a regular citizen and not like royalty. He kept an open door policy at the palace. He ignored the demands of the liberal population, from where he got his power, and that caused the February Revolt

July Revolutions

1830

The were against Charles X. The common people revolted and put barricades in the street.

February Revolt

February, 1848

This revolt was against King Louis Philippe. A provisional government took over

Provisional Government

March 1848 - May 1848

Lous Blanc was a socialist and wanted the government to enact change and he wanted the government to sponsor national workshops in order to garuntee that all the people had work. These workshops, which were run by Blanc's rival, failed.

2nd French Republic

June 1848 - 1852

The government was a Republic. All males could vote. The legislature was a unicameral legislature. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was the president. Socialism heavily influenced the thinking in the republic

June Days (4 days)

June 23, 1848 - June 26, 1848

THis was caused by the abolishment of the government workshops and the oder that all the unemployed provincials move back to the provinces. A dictatorship-republic sort of govenrment took over.

Holy Roman Empire

Gutenburg

1465

He invented the printing press

Luther

1517

He believed that salvation could be obtained by faith alone. Priesthood of all believers meant that everybody was equal before God, but not before economic and social status. anybody could communicate with God through prayer or any other means. No middle man was needed. He was a political conservative.

Charles V

1519 - 1556

He was known as the "Universal Ruler". From his Mom, he got Spain and all of it's holdings. From his Dad, he got the Holy Roman Empire. When he retired, he gave his brother the Holy Roman Empire and to his son, he gives Spain and it's holdings.

Diet of Worms

1521

the council that wanted Luther to recant his 95 Theses. Luther refused to and then went into hiding.

German Peasants Revolt

1525

They used Luther's beliefs of "Priesthood of all believers" to justify that everybody should be equal economically and socially. Luther denounced the revolt.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Series of Reforms made by the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Church was cleaned up and corrupt practices were stopped. It was very successful because they managed to survive.

Schmaldaldic War

1546 - 1548

Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire vs the Lutherans. It ended with the Peace of Augsburg

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Said that the German Princes could decide what religion they wanted their region to practice. cuius regio, eius religio- his land, his religion

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

A war between the Catholics and Protestants (Hapsburgs vs the HRE). It started because of the defenestration of Prague and then France stepped in and made it more of a huegnot vs hapsburgs deal.

Peace of Westphalia

1648

The religious settlement was that people could be whatever religion they wanted to be. The northern part of the Netherlands became the United Provinces. The southern provinces were kept by Spain

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals of the Congress of Vienna- prevent further war, give compensation to winning countries for lost resources, and return old rulers to power. Poland was kept at the boundaries of the 1795 partition of Poland. Poland negotiations almost started another war. Concert of Europe involved almost all the nations in Europe.

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Austria

Robot

1600 - 1900

It was a labor tax and caused forced labor on state projects to improve the country. such as roads.

Battle of Vienna

1683

The Ottoman Turks tried to take this city in an attempt to begin a takeover of Europe. They were saved by the King of Poland.

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

The Pragmatic Sanction said that Maria Theresa could inherit the Austrian throne and keep all her possessions.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War between Prussia and Austria. This war broke the Pragmatic Sanction. Prussia won and gained Silesia.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

she increased the freedom for the serfs and reduced the robot

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia. On European continent, they were fighting over territory. Off of the European continent, Austria’s allies (France and Russia) vs Prussia’s ally (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. To end it, Treaty of Paris (1763), no major changes in Europe. Off the continent, Britain got France’s colonies in North America.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Son of Maria Theresa. He continued his mother's reforms. he abolished the robot, abolished serfdom, reduced taxes, was religiously tolerant of all religions (including Jews), and he controlled the Church.

Metternich

1821 - 1848

From 1821 to 1835, he was 1st Chancellor under the reigns of Francis I and from 1835-1848, he was 1st Chancellor under the reigns of Ferdinand I. The Metternich System was a system of conservative policies that helped keep down liberal rebellions. The Carlsbad decrees were a series of decrees that placed restrictions on news presses, universities, etc. in order to keep a revolution from picking up in Austria. The Concert of Europe was a system set up in order to keep the balance of power. The 2 things that he hated were Liberalism and Nationalism.

1848 Revolts

1848

The people wanted a more liberal government. The government becomes a little more leniant, but apparently that wasn't enough for them. Metternich had to flee. The rebellions were crushed by Franz Joseph.

Prussia

Fredrick William

1713 - 1740

He was known as the "Soldier King" because he was obsessed with the military. He forced his army to march hundreds of miles for no reason at all. (no fighting or nothing)

Fredrick II

1740 - 1786

He reformed the education and legal system. Also he built canals to help internal trade and stabalized prices. he broke the Pragmatic Sanction by attacking Austria (Maria Theresa)

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

War between Prussia and Austria. This war broke the Pragmatic Sanction. Prussia won and gained Silesia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria vs Prussia. On European continent, they were fighting over territory. Off of the European continent, Austria’s allies (France and Russia) vs Prussia’s ally (Britain). Prussia and Britain win. To end it, Treaty of Paris (1763), no major changes in Europe. Off the continent, Britain got France’s colonies in North America.

Johan Herder

1780 - 1799

He was an enlightened writer. He wrote about the origins of man, and other enlighteny stuff like that. He helped create a German nationalism and unity feeling. He helped move forward the "storm and stress" aka strum and drang movement. He was all for German Nationalism

Gross deutsch vs kleine deutsch debate

1800 - 1830

This happened sometime during this time period. Gross deutsch was a unified Germany that included Austria. Kleine deutsh was a unified Germany without Austria.

George Friedreick Hegel

1830

In 1830, he published the "Encyclopedia of Philisophical Sciences" which basically said that history is a pattern of traditions (AKA, history is doomed to repeat itself)

Frankfurt Assembly

1848

They wanted an elected parliament and a unified Germany. They offered the Crown to Fredrick William IV, but he declined the offer because it was a "Crown from the gutter" (I don't think he was right in the head. Who wouldn't want to have all of that power??)

Italy

political organization - Politically, Italy was organized in City States

Prestige of Florence

1460 - 1469

Lorenzo de Medici was the ruler. he was powerful because he was a patron of the arts and they were a banking family.

Cesare Borgia

1467 - 1507

Son of Pope Alexander VI. He wanted to unite the city states of Italy. he was greatly admired by Machiavelli.

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

the ruler of Florence. He ruled from the background. He was a patron of the arts

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

a Dominican Friar who convince people to burn priceless art because it was too secular. he was got killed because the Medici's thought he was going too far and too crazy

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

It was in Rome

Machiavelli (publ. The Prince 1513)

1513

This was a book meant for Cesare Borgia's son so that he could continue his father's ideal. It gave guidelines to being a great ruler. "Better to be feared than to be loved"

End of the Italian Renaissance

1527

This was caused by the invasion of Charles V, when he invaded with an alliance with Ludvico Il Moro

Castiglione (Book of the Courtier, publ. 1528)

1528

This book talked about the perfect Renaissance man and how he should act.

Galileo (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, publ. 1764)

1764

He said that the sun was the center of the universe, everything revolves around the sun, and pooped on the view of the Catholic church. Of course, the Catholic church was furious with what he said and wanted him to take it all back.

Cesare Beccaria (On Crime and Punishment, pub. 1764)

1764

He wanted prisoners to be treated better and wanted the death penalty completely abolished.

Risorgimento

1800 - 1850

The unification of Italy. 3 groups- Neo Gulfs (under the pope), Young Italy (republic), Sardinians (constitutional monarchy)

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals of the Congress of Vienna- prevent further war, give compensation to winning countries for lost resources, and return old rulers to power. Parts of Italy were given to Austria

Giuseppe Mazzini

1848

he was a Leader of the Young Italy group. He wanted Italy to be a republic

Unification movements

1848

they were unsuccessful because the Pope called in French troops, which shut down all the rebellions.