Timeline for (some of) France, Hapsburgs, Prussia, and Italy



1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/ Enlightnement

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Romanticism

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna

09/09/1516 - 09/10/1516

Fances I and the Pope; deal to keep France catholic though French king has control over French church

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

She ruled France for her incompetent sons, really bad at being a politique

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

06/06/1572 - 07/06/1572

the Huguenots were murdered; Pope loved it

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Paris is well worth the mass; he was Catholic then Huguenot then catholic, he issued Edict of Nantes to allow Huguenots in France in pockets, ploitique because he liked peace better than killing of Huguenots.. he was stabbed to death in a carriage by a religious zelot

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

he turned power over to Richelieu, French academy standardised all french languages by creating the first dictionary; he liked to control the nobles by forbidding them from having castles and takes away fun lifestyle, Hapsburges hurt bc France backed the protestants in the 30 years war, Huguenots hurt by taking away walls of Huguenot pockets

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Richilouis sends french troops to back up protestants because they hate the Hapsburgs, " By the time this is over, France is the strongest country of Huguenots

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

"i am the state", bad at economics bc spent way to much on Versalli and gave away titles, bad at religion bc he revoked Edict of Nantes, Controled nobles by making them live at V,, contruoled huguonets by making them convert

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

(Charles 2 of Spain) about Phillip of France inheriting the Spanish throne so Louis XIV "Pynerries exist no longer", but war bc no one likes Spance, everyone but france won, Treaty of Utrech

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Madam de pompador was mistress and ran a huge salon art style was rococo

Montesquieu (Spirit of the Laws publ. 1748)

1748 - 1749

3 branched of gov.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Bw (on contentiant) austria v prussia, (off contient) allies v allies, looses colonial possessions

Voltaire (caindide publ. 1759)

1759 - 1760

hated the catholic church but loved free speech

Rosseau (Social COntract publ. 1762)

1762 - 1763

government should respece the General WIl, Emili publ. 1762 children should be educated frem thier own experiences not in a classroom, against the enlightenment bc believed in emotion and people living in the woods

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

was indescisive, wife was Maire Antianette, people hated her bc she was the symble of regal excess, he was beheaded on charges of treason

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

france helped America bc they hated Great Britian, france kinda went bankrupt and killed economy

National Assembly/ Legislative Assemble

1789 - 1791

Abee Sieyes wrote what is the third estae which attacked nobel and church privilages, assignats was teh money, civil const of the clergy was stopped catholics form practicing, Constitution of 1791(constitutional monarchy) created constituional monarchy

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National convention legislative body under robespierre, comittee of public safty under robesiierre killed even more people,
Reign of terror killed lots of people, Thermidorian reaction when people revolted against robespoerre


1795 - 1799

oligarcy created that was more stable than Revolutionary govt


1799 - 1815

concordat of 1801 allowed catholics to be catholic, Napoleonic code was enlightened because it gave equal oppurtunity for advancement; the Continental system helped faciliate trade but blocked off England (actually helped E. bc of black market); Peninsular War(1808-1812) when N. wanted to take over all of europe; Inveded russia in winter and had to turn back unsuccessfully; hundered days(1815) was when he escaped elba and took over france again; waterloo(1815) was major battle that defeated him by the british; allies, france proper and dependent states


1814 - 1824

youngest brother of Louis XVI, Charter of 1814 gave france a constitution (kept Napoleans code and religious arrangements) but atted a chamber of elected deputies

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals- balance of power, old monarchs back on throne,and go back to conservative rulers; France rep was Tallyrand, france was treated really fairly

Charles X

1824 - 1830

so conservative it hurts; July ordinances dissolved the chamber of deputes, decreased # of voters, and controlled the presses; people hated it and rebelled in the July Revolution

July Revolutions

1830 - 1831

against Charles X; working people and proletariat barracted streets in Paris

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

called the citizen king; reign known as the July monarchy; he reduced property requirements for voting, abolished press censorship and reintroduced the tricolor flag; he ignored the demands of the urban worker which caused the revolution of 1848

February Revolt

02/01/1848 - 03/01/1848

against Louis Philippe; provisional coalition govenment takes over

Provisional Government

03/01/1848 - 05/30/1848

Louis Blanc was a crackpot who wanted national workshops so the government could eliminate unemployment; the workshops failed and cause a huge insurrection in Paris in june of 1848

June Days

06/01/1848 - 07/01/1848

4 days in june; rioting against the closing of national workshops and the fact that the government wasnt helping the people out; republic government takes over

2nd French Republic

06/01/1848 - 1852

republic governmen with a unicameral legislater , all mles could vote, president was Louis Napolean Bonaparte (later Napolean III), heavely influenced by socialism

Holy Roman Empire


1465 - 1466

Gutenberg invented the printing press!!!



believed in salvation through fainth,, priesthood of all belivers everyone eual in eyes of god, believed that teh government should rule, conservative

Charles V

1519 - 1556

"universal monarchy";
he inherited spain from mom and hre from daddy; gave hre to brother and spain to son when retired

Diet of Worms


luther was told to recant by Charles V, luther refused

German Peasants revolt

1525 - 1526

luthers priesthood of all believers made everyone euqal i nthe eyes of god so everyone must be equal politically, luther wrote the murderous and thieving hordes to say they were wrong

Council of Trent

1545 - 1548

counter reformation step that tried to revamp the catholic church; got rid of simony and indulgences and gave clergy education so pretty sucessful

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestant leagues v. the catholic princes , resulted in the peace of augsburg

Peace of Augsburg


allowed princes to choose the religion of their area, Cuius regio, eius religio who rules chooses

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

catholics v. protestants; started with the defenestration of Prague, France sided with the protestants to stick it to the hapsburgs

Peace of Westphalia


Calvinism was included as accepted religion now, the northern Netherlands became independent united provences of the Netherlands

Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815

German Confederation

1815 - 1871

Congress of Viennia

1815 - 1820

three goals were restore old monarchys, balance of power, was reparations; Russia really eanted poland and ended up with half bc major issue for many states; called Concert of Europe bc there was so much parting adn on international stage


Vienna as the center for European music



peasants had to work ridiculous amount of hours

Battle of Viennia


ottoman turks attacked viennia and Jan Sobieski teh Polish king saved the day

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

pragmatic sanction said Maria theresa could inherit teh throne of the HRE to keep Hapsburg Hapsburg

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

enlightened reforms- reduces the robot, increses freedom for surfs

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

prussia v. austria; prussia won, Silesia was won by prussia

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Prussia v. austria on the contenent, Prussias allies v. austrias allies in N. America, England and Prussia won

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

mom was Maria Thersea , abolished the robot, no more serfs, church controled by him, reduces taxes for everyone, religious freedom for all and jews


1821 - 1848

(in office from 1821 – 1848, 1st chancellor under the reigns of Francis I (1821–1835) & Ferdinand I (1835–1848); Metternich system was supression of rebelloin and religious censoship; Carlsbad Decrees where press totally controlled; concert of europe austrian delegate; hated nationalism and liberalism

1848 Revolts


hungarians wanted independence, Italiwns wated independence, czechs wanted independence, adn austrians wanted a liberal government; reestablished ancient regime; Franz Joseph put down rebellion


Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

The Solider King, called bc he build up the military

Federick II

1740 - 1786

Enlightened reforms- abolished surfdom, est. bureaucracy composed of educated civil servents, wliminated use of torture in judicial proceedings, abandoned capital punishment, and protected religious minorities (except Jews); violated Pragmatic Sanction adn invaded Austria

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Austria v. Prussia; Prussia won and got Silesia

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Prussia v. austria on the contenent, Prussias allies v. austrias allies in N. America, England and Prussia won

Johan Heder

1780 - 1790

he was romantic author big into nationalismearly German romantic (into the "storm and stress" aka strum and drang movement) and all about German Nationalism

Gross deutsch vs. kleine deutsch


early 19th century; gross- all German speaking states including Austria, kleine- all German states unified not including Austria

George Friederick Hegel


Published Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences, theory on the progression of history- series of old ideas v. new ideas, conflict, repeat

Frankfurt Assembly


wrote a New Constitution which provided for an Elected Parliament and would unify the German states as a German Empire; they offered the crown to Frederick William IV but her turned it down calling it a "crown from the Gutter" bc elected body offered the crown, not the princes of the region


Humanism- understanding humans control their own destany, idea comes from ancient greese adn rome,
Political orgainization- city states ruled bywealthy families

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

begins in florance, peak in rome

Prestige of Florence


Lorenzo di Medici ruled; powerful because he was from a very wealthy banking family

Cesare Borgia

1476 - 1507

he was the illigatment son of pope alex 6; he was admired by machiavelli because he tried to unite Italy

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

ruled florance, wealthy banking family, patron of the arts, controls government

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

he was a religious guy, he held the Bondfire of the Vanities and burned lots of art bacause thought people were getting to secualer

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

in Rome



publ. the Prince; where say it is better to be freaed than loved

End of Italian Renaissance


French king invaded



Book of the Courtier which said that how to be the ideal ren. man/women -man good at everything



Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief Systems said that proved that earth revolvs around teh sun, pope hated him and forced him to recant

Cesare Beccaria


On Crime and Punishment- about no torture of prisioners

Congress of Viennia

1815 - 1820

goals- war reparations, old monarchs back, and balance of power; Italy was carved liked a turkey and given to Austrians



in first half of 19th century; movement for itialian unification, started by the Carbornari, Guisseppi Mazzini's Young Italy, Sarsinians and the neo guelfs wanted to unify

Giuseppe Mazzini


guy who started young Italy, wanted democracy, Heart of italian unificaiton

Unification Efforts 1848


unification efforts unsuccessful because of three separate groups that wanted different things (democracy, constitutional monarchy, and Catholic theocracy)