Timeline Project


Basic Historical Eras


1400 - 1600

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1600


1517 - 1600

Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment

1550 - 1800


1600 - 1750

French Revolution

1789 - 1815

Reaction & Reformation

1815 - 1850


Concordat of Bologna

1516 - 1517

France was allowed to stay Catholic and appoint biships. Francis I of France.

Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

Queen of France, ruled for her incompetent sons. Not very good at being a politique.

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Catherine de Medici had Huguenots slaughtered. Caused Henry of Navarre to turn Catholic- "Paris is well worth a mass." Pope was super happy.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is well worth a mass" Changed from Protestant to Catholic a lot so he could keep public support. Killed by religious zealot. Edict of Nantes allowed for Hugeunot pockets. Politique because somewhat religiously tolerant.

Louis XIII/Richelieu

1610 - 1643

Louis turned power to Richelieu. French Academy started to jump start French education. Controlled nobles, tore down castle and never called Estates General. Helped Sweden in 30 yrs War against Hapsburgs. No Huguenot fortification for their towns.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Louis XIII sends French troops to aid Swedish fight against Hapsburgs. "By the time this is over, France is the strongest country in Europe"

War of Spanish Succession

1702 - 1713

Charles II willed the SP throne to Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV. No body wanted Spance, Ended w/ treaty of Utretch, Philip got to be king of Spain but not France

Louis XV

1715 - 1774

Rococo art syle, Madame P is famous mistress



"Spirit of Laws" wanted 3 branches of government, England's government is ideal

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria, France, Russia aimed to conquer Prussia, Russia called off their attack and Prussia was saved.



"Candide" "Crush the thing"- on the Catholic church. Strong advocate for free speech



"Social contract" General Will- people basically good but corrupted. General Will not always majority. Believed children should run wild to learn. Considered against Enlightenment because "man is born free but everywhere he is in chains"

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Shy and easily persuaded. Wife is Marie Antoinette- FR didn't like her because she was Austrian and spent tons of money. Charged on treason and hanged.

American Revolution

1776 - 1783

FR helped to get revenge on the British, got France bankrupt

National Assmebly/Legislative Assembly

1789 - 1791

Abbe Sieyes-"what is the third estate?" Chief political theorist of fr revolution. Helped with transformation to natl assembly
Assignats- money backed by church lands
Civil Constitution of Clergy- France is Catholic again
Constitution of 1791- 1st written constitution of France, after collapse of ancient regime

1st French Republic

1792 - 1795

National convention is ruling body. COPs are secret police-like force that hunted down enemies of the Revolution. Robespierre's reign of terror ended with Thermidorian Reaction.


1795 - 1799

Stable but corrupt


1799 - 1815

Concordat of 1801-pope pius vii solidified Roman Catholic Church as majority of French religion
Napoleonic Code allowed for basic freedoms, made laws easier to understand for everyone. Continental System was warfare with Britain.
3 parts of empire-French empire, allied states, dependent states
Peninsular War- Geurilla war w/ Spain
Failed invasion of Russia b/c winter
Hundred Days- brief return from exile
Waterloo- everyone gangs up on Napoleon- his big loss


1814 - 1824

Grandson of Louis XVI, Charter of 1814 allows for chamber of elected deputies

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

Balance of power, return of legit monarchs, compensation for war losses. FR's rep is Talleyrand- they went easy on France

Charles X

1824 - 1830

Conservative! July Ordinances dissolved chamber of deputies, decreased the number of eligable voters, and controlled all presses. People were pissed

Louis Philippe

1830 - 1848

Called Citizen King and known as the bourgeoisie Monarchy, differenet because he allowed for more voters, tri-color revolutionary flag, and decreased censorship. Ignored demands of working class, and caused Revolution of 1848

July Revolutions


Against Charles X, FR barracade the streets in Paris-peasants mostly. Charles runs away to England

June Days


Rioting against the closing of nat'l workshops. 2nd French republic comes to power.

February Revolt


Backlash against Louis Philippe. Provisional Coalition government takes over and Louis Blanc gains power w/ his national workshop idea

Provisional Government


Louis Blanc came to power and wanted government funded national workshops. They worked initially but then failed

2nd French Republic

1848 - 1852

Republic takes over (2nd one) All males can vote. President is Louis Napoleon Bonaparte is President. Heavily influenced by socialism.

German States



Gutenburg press made widespread publication possible. Most popular book is the Bible. Helped spread of Protestant Revolution



Believed you can be saved through your faith, priesthood of all believers- everyone is equal in the eyes of God, political conservative

Charles V

1519 - 1556

The Universal monarch, inherited land from relatives of SP and HRE, split his land up when he retired to monastery

Diet of Worms


Charles V asked Luther to recant, Luther refused and went into hiding.

German Peasant's Revolt


Justified their argument for revolting as backed by Luther's teachings. Luther was a political conservative and disapproved

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Church effort to clean up their wrong doings. No predetermination, transubstantiation, etc. Mildly effective

Schmalkaldic War

1546 - 1548

Protestant German princes fought Hapsburgs (Catholic) Ended with the Peace of Augsburg which allowed for Lutheranism or Catholicism

Peace of Augsburg


German princes can choose the religion of their areas. "Curius e religio" (sp)

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Catholic vs. Protestant (Hapsburgs vs. Europe) over balance of power against the Hapsburgs and religion. France wins

Battle of Vienna


Who attacked whom- Ottomans attacked the HRE
Who saved the day- Poland

Charles VI

1711 - 1740

Pragmatic sanction- Charles abdicates and splits the throne between son Philip and brother Ferdinand, starting branches of Hapsburg family

Frederick William I

1713 - 1740

"The Soldier King" makes Prussia the Sparta of the North

War of Austrain Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick marches into Austria against Maris Theresa
Austria wins but
Frederick gets to keep Silesia

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick II invades Austria and seizes Silesia which he was able to keep

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Abolished serfom, bureucracy of civil servants, eliminated use of torture, etc.
He takes advantage of the Pragmatic Sanction confusion and invades Selisia which he gets to keep

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Reorganized local government by dividing empire into 10 units, reduced amount of work a landholder could demand of a peasant

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria, FR, Russia aim to conquer Prussia and divide territory. Saved by Peter III calling off invasion- Prussia is saved

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Austria, FR, Russia aim to conquer Prussia and divide territory. Saved by Peter III calling off invasion- Prussia is saved

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Mother is Maria Theresa. Abolished serfdom, peasants can learn things, religous tolerance. Reforms didn't last

Johan Herder

1780 - 1790

German critic, theologian, and philosopher, who was the leading figure of the Sturm und Drang literary movement and an innovator in the philosophy of history and culture. Early Romantic and promoter of German nationalism



Forced labor

Gross deutsch vs. Kleine deutsch Debate


What was this debate? debate over unification of Germany- with or without Austria

Vienna as the center for European Music


Confederation of the Rhine

1806 - 1815


Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals- balance of power, restoration of monarchs to the throne, compensation for war losses. Poland is big issue esp. for Russia and Alexander.
Concert of Europe- Congress system for balance of power after Napleonic Wars

German Confederation

1815 - 1871



1821 - 1848

Metternich System-political and religious censorship, espionage, and the suppression of revolutionary, nationalist movements
Carlsbad Decrees- root out subversives in their universities and newspapers.
Concert of Europe- congress system for balance of power after Napoleonic Wars
2 things he hates- nationalism and liberalism

Geoge Frederick Hegel


Theory of progression of history- series of conflicts and resolution. Necessary clashes

Frankfurt Assembly


What did they want? New constitution
To whom did they offer the crown? Frederick William IV
What happened? He denied it because it was offered by elected representatives of the people- not rulers. "Crown from the gutter"

1848 Revolts


People wanted more liberal constitution. Government is taken over by Franz Joseph in 1848 who reasserts the ancient regime


Political Organization of Italy


Many city states ruled independently

Early Renaissance

1450 - 1500

Began in Florence. Developed into High and Low.

Prestige of Florence


Ruled by Medici- powerful bankers


1476 - 1507

Ruthless ruler/conqueror, admired for being perfect "New Monarch"

Lorenzo de Medici

1478 - 1492

Powerful member of Medici family, helped bring Renaissance to Italy

Friar Savonarola

1494 - 1498

Tried to expose wrongdoings of Medicis, ended up being burned at the stake

High Renaissance

1500 - 1527

Occurred in Rome



study of Ancient Greece and Rome, idea that humans can contribute/make progress



The Prince- a ruler should be ruthless, unforgiving, good at war. "Better to be feared than loved"

End of Italian Renaissance


Charles V invaded, causing end of Renaissance in Italy



The Courtier- description of the idea Renaissance man



Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems- Catholic Church hated him for his discoveries with his perfected telescope- the earth isn't the center of the universe

Cesare Beccaria


On Crime and Punishment- argument for no capital punishment

Congress of Vienna

1815 - 1820

3 goals- compensation for war losses, restoration of monarchs back to thrones, balance of power in Europe. France got buffer states, some near Italy, some land went to Austria.



Effort for Italian unification, started by the "coal burners"
3 groups- Young Italy, Sardinians, Neo Guelfs

Italian Unification


Unification movements unsuccessful because none of the groups ever united for a cause

Giuseppe Mazzini


Leader of group Young Italy. Wanted Italian democracy