A History of the Middle East up to the 20th Century

Main

Neolithic Revolution

8000 B.C.E.

the change from food gathering to food cultivation and animal domestication

Sumerian civilization originates

3000 B.C.E.

Akkadian (Semitic) rule

2350 B.C.E. - 2230 B.C.E.

3rd Dynasty of Ur in Samaria

2112 B.C.E. - 2004 B.C.E.

Old Babylonian Dynastic rule

1900 B.C.E. - 1600 B.C.E.

also Semitic

Abraham migrates to Canaan

1800 B.C.E.

Kassite rule; development of an early Ugahir alphabet

1500 B.C.E. - 1150 B.C.E.

Israelite Kingdom experiences its height

1000 B.C.E. - 900 B.C.E.

Assyrian conquest of Israelite Northern Kingdom

721 B.C.E.

Assyrian destruction of Israel

500 B.C.E. - 400 B.C.E.

Muhammad's life

570 - 633

Muhammad leaves Mecca for Medina

622

Muhammad returns to Mecca

630

Islamic conquest of Syria

632

Ali is Caliph and the first Islamic civil war occurs

656 - 661

Umayyad Caliphate rules from Damascus

661 - 750

Abbasid Caliphate rules from Baghdad

750 - 1258

Fatimid Caliphate rules North Africa from Cairo (Shi'ite Dynasty)

909 - 1171

Seljuks sack Baghdad

1055

Jerusalem is captured by the crusaders

1099

Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from the crusaders

1187

Mongol attacks on Iran

1219 - 1223

Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate and rise of the Mongols Inthe Middle East

1258

Egypt contracts the plague

1350

Timur (a Mongol leader) defeats the Ottoman sultan briefly

1402

Ottomans capture Constantinople

1453

marks the beginning of direct Middle Eastern-European involvement and the start of a new World Age of communication

Egypt

Old Kingdom reign begins

2575 B.C.E.

First Intermediate period begins

2134 B.C.E.

Middle Kingdom Begins

2040 B.C.E.

Second Intermediate period begins; Hyksos domination is briefly experienced

1640 B.C.E.

New Kingdom; Nubia/Kush is controlled by Egypt

1532 B.C.E. - 1070 B.C.E.

Assyrian conquest of Egypt

671 B.C.E.

Egypt contracts the plague

1350

Selim conquers Egypt, adding it to Ottoman territory

1516 - 1517

Persia

Persians settle in southwest Iran

1000 B.C.E.

Cyrus' reign

550 B.C.E. - 530 B.C.E.

Alexander conquers his empire and the Hellenistic synthesis begins

534 B.C.E. - 523 B.C.E.

Xerxes' Greek invasions, which both fail

480 B.C.E. - 479 B.C.E.

Hellenistic Period

323 B.C.E. - 30 B.C.E.

Ottomans and Safavids

Ottomans capture Constantinople

1453

Shah Ismael establishes Iranian Safavid rule

1502 - 1524

Selim conquers Egypt and Syria

1516 - 1517

Peak of the Ottoman Empire

1520 - 1566

First Ottoman siege of Vienna

1529

Reign of Shah Abba the Great

1587 - 1629

End of Anatolian revolts (Ottomans heartland)

1610

Ottoman decline sets in

1700 - 1875

African invaders topple the last Safavid Shah

1722

Janissary revolt begins the Ottoman conservatism period

1730

Ottomans decline to a fall after WWI

1920