History Midterm Timeline

Unit 1 - Atlantic World

Moor occupation of Spain

790 - 1492

Moors - Muslim people who lived in Spain and Portugal

Leif Erikkson

980 - 1020

-Viking explorer in the 11th century from Scandinavia (North Atlantic, Greenland, North America, Canada).
-Sailed across the Atlantic 500 years ahead of Columbus.

Crusades

1100 - 1300

-a series of wars fought between Muslims and Christians over the city Jerusalem in Isreal
-both sides believed Jerusalem to be rightfully theirs

Marco Polo

1254 CE - 1324 CE

-Venetian explorer who explored the east (Eastern Med., Arabian Sea, across Asia {Japan, China, India} on a 20 year journey

Black plague

1300 - 1400

-dark period for Europe
-1/3 population of Europe killed by plague
-science not yet advanced - people blamed minorities (ex. Jews) for disease

Ibn Battuta

1303 - 1367

-Moroccan, Muslim explorer.
-Recorded lots of details about the culture in Africa and his journal became a bestseller.

Zheng He

1371 - 1433

Explorer from the Ming Dynasty. Sailed until the period of isolation. Journeyed from the ocean around to China to the Middle East. Had a much larger ship than Columbus and a lot of them.

Diogo Cao discovers Congo

1482

Diogo Cao - Portuguese explorer first to discover mouth of Congo River in Africa
placed a "Padrao" or a cross there, marking it as Portuguese territory

Reconquista

1492

Moors are driven out of Iberian Peninsula by Christians
organized by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain who made all Muslims and Jews convert or leave Spain
Conversos - Jews and Muslims that are converted - Suspected by people that they didn’t fully believe in Christianity and practiced their own religion in secret.
Spanish Inquisition:
-Purpose: hold trials for people accused of falsely converting to Christianity.
-Torture chambers meant for Conversos to force them to confess that they are secretly practicing their religion.

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

1502 - 1870

the transport of about 12 million Africans to the Americas for slavery
also big profit in SUGAR - used in rum, tea, coffee, chocolate

Haitian revolution

1802

Haitian slaves revolt and over throw owners
only place successful in destroying slave system

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

German philosopher and revolutionary living in London who observed the changes occurring during Industrial Revolution
Wrote the “Communist Manifesto.”
Marxism - Proletariat (poor) vs. Bourgeoisie (rich) - claimed Proletariat would soon revolt in Communist Revolution

Triple Alliance

1914

Britain, France, and Russia ally VS. Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy ally

WORLD WAR I

1914 - 1918

Alliance of Great Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, and others vs. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Fought mostly in Europe and Northern Africa.
End with Treaty of Versailles

Murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

june 28 1914 - june 29 1914

Archduke Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian assassin named Princip
Serbia protected by Russia
Austria-Hungary and Germany declare war on Serbia, which is allied with Russia, Great Britain, and France = WWI

Great Depression

1930 - 1940

after WWI
Economy of world destroyed - Germany hit the hardest

Adolf Hitler gains power

1934

Hitler uses the Great Depression to motivate Germans to fight and annihilate minorities (Jews)

WORLD WAR II

1939 - 1945

-Hitler/Nazis VS. everyone else
-Holocaust
-first war with use of nuclear weapons
1945: US bombs Hiroshima after the Pearl Harbor incident
-SHIFT IN POWER: Great Britain is no longer most powerful nation - US and Soviet Union = most powerful

Cold War

1950 - 1989

US + Russia = massive amounts of nuclear weapons and bombs
stalemate: one cannot blow the other up without blowing themselves up
US goal is to contain communism

Unit 2 - Latin America

Atahualpa

1400 - 1450

first indigenous leader of Incan society (present day Bolivia)
Spanish Conquistadors captured Atahualpa in Cajamarca.
Atahualpa had 80,000 soldiers (wanted significant army for show because he was in a civil war with his brother)
Incans were really unprepared when faced with the Spanish
They had never seen any of the weapons and because of that there wasn’t a single Spanish casualty
Francisco Pizarro captured Atahualpa and asked for a ransom-ransom was paid but they killed Atahualpa anyway
None of the Inca raised a weapon on the Spanish (Maybe thought they were gods)

Encomienda System

1520 - 1720

land grants given to Spanish conquistadors in America
they own the land as well as the PEOPLE on the land = slavery
"Encomenderos" - the landowners
"Haciendas" - the Encomenderos mansions
Encomenderos made money by growing coca and sugar
Potosi - big silver mining operation in Andes - killed hundreds of slaves

30 years war

1618 - 1648

most European countries fighting over territory
Spain was the most powerful - because of funds from their colonies in Latin America

Simon Bolivar

1783 - 1830

was "El Liberator" - Criollo revolutionary
led revolutions against Spain in Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (which is named after him)
-Criollo - wealthy, educated Encomenderos who consider themselves AMERICAN not Spanish, hate the Quinto Royale
VS. Peninsulares - just arrived in Americas, feel alliance to Spain

Monroe Doctrine

1823

President James Monroe + John Quincy Adams
how the US should respond to Latin American independence

Latin American Independence*

1828

All Latin American countries are independent by this time except Cuba and Puerto Rico
Challenges for the newly independent countries:
-unification
-setting up a government
-realizing culture/identity
-protection
-economy
TOO MANY PROBLEMS - Caudillos (military dictators) take over the weak Latin America
73 coups in 180 years...

Spanish war

1895 - 1898

Cuba begins revolution against Spanish rule in 1895
1898 - US declares war on Spain and takes all remaining Spanish American colonies

Scramble for Africa starts

1914

incentive for World War I
European nations competing over African territory

Jorge Ubico

1931 - 1944

dictator of Guatemala
Supported by US - gave away huge pieces of land to US companies-esp. to the United Fruit Company

Jacobo Arbenz

1950 - 1954

elected president of Guatemala
Began a series of land reforms to undo some of the actions of Ubico happened when Guatemalans forced open elections b/c hated all dictators
Believes that his job is to protect and bring up the living conditions of the people
Wants to buy back land plots for the people and to buy out the United Fruit Company-but they got mad and resulted in US wanting to drive Arbenz out of power
Accused of being a communist by US

Unit 3 - Africa

Berlin Conference

January 1884 - December 1884

conference held in Berlin, Germany organized by King Leopold including all large European powers
divided Africa between themselves
granted European powers freedom to trade and colonize African interior.