Foundations

Foundations

8ooo BCE - 6oo BCE

Start of Hominid

8001 BCE

Emerged in southern and east Africa around 3 - 4 million years ago.
At this time Sapiens Sapiens is thought to have begun the move out of Africa @ 72,000 BCE
1. Australopithecus
2. Homo erectus
3.Homo habilis
4.Homo sapiens

Ages
Lower Paleolithic 300,000-70,000 BC Old Stone Age
Middle Paleolithic 70,000-12,000 BC
Upper Paleolithic 35,000-12,000 BC
Mesolithic 12,000-10,000 BC Middle Stone Age

Migration
Africa -> Middle East (100,000 years ago) -> SE Asia and India (70,000 years ago) -> China (67,000 years ago) ->Australia and Oceania (50,000 years ago) -> Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia (40,000 years ago)
*To America
- Still unknown. Some believe they crossed the Bering land bridge 15,000 years ago.

New Stone Age

8ooo BCE - 45oo BCE

New Stone Age (Neolithic)

8000 BCE - 4500 BCE

Lived in natural dwellings.
The start of fire.
The first weapons: rocks, clubs.
Built Tools.

Social:
Based on kinship group which survived off of hunting and foraging.
Often practiced nomadism. Didn't have a complex class structure.
Start of gender inequality.

Religion:
Enjoyed rich artistic and religious life.
Believed in animism or totemism, everything in the natural.
Shamans are religious leaders.

The two best-known examples of the remains of Neolithictowns are at Jericho and Çatal Hüyük. Jericho, on the west bank of the JordanRiver, was a walled town with mud-brick structures and dates back to 8000B.C.E.

Domestication

8000 BCE

First signs of farming and domestication of wild plants such as squash on the tropical coast of Ecuador and rice along the marshy banks of the Yangtze in China.

First to be tamed was the dog.

The first signs of sophisticated and domesticated plants and animals being dispersed into new areas of the Fertile Crescent. This included the range of founder crops, and the introduction into Cyprus of the domesticated Mesopotamian fallow deer, with sheep, goats and cattle.

Humans had settled in all but the most inhospitable parts of the globe.

Agriculture

8000 BCE - 4000 BCE

Population

5000 BCE

World population is at 10 million.

Copper Stone Age

45oo BCE - 3ooo BCE

Copper Stone Age (Chalcolithic)

4500 BCE - 3000 BCE

Early Bronze Age

3ooo BCE - 25oo BCE

Early Bronze Age

3000 BCE - 2500 BCE

Middle Bronze Age

25oo BCE - 2ooo BCE

Middle Bronze Age

2500 BCE - 2000 BCE

Late Bronze Age

2ooo BCE - 12oo BCE

Late Bronze Age

2000 BCE - 1200 BCE