Key Events in the Middle East

Main

Abraham Makes Covenant with God

3000 B.C.

Ten Commandments Formed

1200 B.C.

Moses leads Jews from slavery in Egypt.

Jews Given Kingdom of Jerusalem

1000 B.C.

Babylon Destroys 1st Temple

586 B.C.

Jews made Babylonian slaves

Persian Empire Formed

559 B.C.

King Cyrus II formed after falling under Zoroaster's sway

Cyrus the Great (Persia) Conquers Babylon

539 B.C.

Jews are freed and given money to rebuild temple

Alexander the Great Ruled

356 B.C. - 323 B.C.

Greek ruler whose lands stretched from Egypt to Persia after his death

Ptolemy I Ruled

323 B.C. - 283 B.C.

Ruled Egypt following Alexander the Great's death

Alexandria prospered.

Cleopatra Ruled

51 B.C. - 30 B.C.

Last of Alexandria's pharaohs

Octavian Ruled

30 B.C. - 19

First emperor of Roman Empire who was responsible for ending the Greek Empire

Attained Egypt, Syria, and Palestine

Failed to get Persia

Romans Evict Jews from Palestine

135

Jesus Crucified

33

Arab-Israeli War

1948

Within 24 hours of Israeli's creation, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq attacked.

Israel ended the war with 78% of Palestinian territory (victorious).

Suez Crisis

1956

Egyptian President Nasser nationalized Suez Canal.

Israel, Britain, and France attacked to gain back British control.

U.S. shooed them out - sided with Egypt.

Six-Day War

1967

Preemptive strike by Israel against Egypt

Israel took all of Palestinian land, lands in Egypt and Syria, and Jerusalem as their capital

Yom Kippur War

1973

Egypt and Syria wanted their land back and attacked Israel.

U.S. sent arms to Israel.

Arab OPEC countries shut off oil to U.S.

Israel kept most of the land.

Lebanese Civil War

1975 - 1990

Mass exodus of people

Syria and Israel exploited country during war.

Country remains in ruins

Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty

1979

Negotiated by President Carter

Iran-Iraq War

1980 - 1988

Reasons:

  • Fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority

  • Iraq's desire to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state

  • Border disputes

First Intifada (Palestinian Uprising)

1987 - 1993

Sparked when an Israeli truck killed 4 Palestinians

Riots

Islamic study group forms the radical group Hamas (suicide bombers)

Gulf War

August 2, 1990 - February 28, 1991

"Operation Desert Storm"

War waged by a U.N.-authorized Coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

Oslo Accords Peace Treaty

1993

First face to face agreement between Israel and Palestine

Palestinian National Authority (PNA) created.

Called for the withdrawal of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) from parts of the Gaza Strip and West Bank

Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty

1994

Second Intifada (Palestinian Uprising)

2000 - 2005

Characterized by Palestinian suicide bombers exploding in Israel

U.S. - Iraq War

2003 - 2013

Israel–Hezbollah War

June 12, 2006 - August 14, 2006

Conflict between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon that left the country in more ruins.

The U.S. supported Israel.