In 200 BCE, a new evolution began with the discovery of zero and the current Hindu-Arabic Numeral System, As the ancient Indian civilizations such as the Indus, Mauryan, and Gupta began to delve into scientific and astronomical research, numbers began to be necessary to record properly data obtained through methodical observation. In many of the classical Vedic texts such as the Upanishads, number systems with and without place value were referenced to explain natural observations and phenomena.
During the life of al-Rāzī from 854-925/935 CE, the Islamic world was enriched with a wealth of medical knowledge from leading scholars such as al-Zahwari, ibn al-Nafs, and ibn al-Quff from areas such as quarantine and hospitals to the description of the immune system. This past information was incorporated and evolved into the works of al-Rāzī to reach conclusions such as the infection amount of smallpox for a human being and the development of drug chemotherapy to combat various diseases.
The wheel is a simple and fundamental concept but is present in our daily lives taking the forms of tires, gears, and movable objects which are the center of our society. The first rounded wheel was thought to be invented around 8000 BCE in Asia, though the first documented wheel utilized is in Mesopotamia in 3500 BCE.
Around 3000 BCE, in the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations, sails made of the most common material around, papyrus, were mounted onto boats for speed and stability. Since then, sails have been used, improved, and updated until the rise of nautical steam power.
During the 19th century, the Afroeurasian supercontinent was revolutionizing the how world with the use of the steam engine to move and transport large quantities of goods and people in portable devices known as steam locomotives. Over the next century, this concept was gradually improved upon until the arrival of diesel and electric locomotives and cars. Steam locomotives created a faster solution to moving large quantities of good and passengers without using ill treated roads for carts.
On December 17, 1903, the first successful powered flight was achieved at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Though previous strides had been made in the field of flight, the Wright Brothers compiled this information and started an aeronautical revolution.