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Eastern Woodland Indians

800 - 1492

Because the eastern woodland Indians lived in the forests, they were called the Eastern Woodland Indians. Their food, shelter, clothing, weapons, and tools came from the forests around them.

Port Royal

1518

Port Royal was a city located at the end of the Palisadoes at the mouth of the Kingston Harbour, in southeastern Jamaica. Founded in 1518, it was the centre of shipping commerce in the Caribbean Sea during the latter half of the 17th century.

San Miguel de Gualdape

1526 - 1527

Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon (c. 1475-1526) of Spain established San Miguel de Gualdape, probably near present-day Georgetown, but possibly further south.

Mercantilism

1600 - 1700

MERCANTILISM. Mercantilism was an economic "system" that developed in Europe during the period of the new monarchies (c. 1500) and culminated with the rise of the absolutist states (c. 1600–1700).

13 English Colonies

1607 - 1733

The colonies were: Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, Maryland, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Each colony developed its own system of self-government. Residents of these colonies were mostly independent farmers, who owned their own land and voted for their local and provincial government.

Proprietary Colony

1632 - 1720

PROPRIETARY COLONIES were grants of land in the form of a charter, or a license to rule, for individuals or groups. They were used to settle areas rapidly with British subjects at the proprietors' expense during the costly settlement years.

Royal Colony

1664 - 1685

Crown Law. Royal colonies were those that in the absence or revocation of a private or proprietary charter came under the direct, everyday governmental control of the English monarchy.

Rice and Indigo Trade

1698 - 1730

Rice was grown successfully in South Carolina as early as 1680. By the early 18th century, with the slave system established on a large scale, rice became a major export crop of the region. Rice planting was extremely profitable -- Charleston rice exports rose from 10,000 pounds in 1698 to over 20 million pounds by 1730 -- and South Carolina's tidal swamps were well-suited for it. Because of the seasonal nature of rice and indigo, both crops could be grown using the same labor force.

Yemassee War

1715 - 1717

in British-American colonial history, conflict between Indians, mainly Yamasee, and British colonists in the southeastern area of South Carolina, resulting in the collapse of Indian power in that area. Embittered by settlers’ encroachment upon their land and by unresolved grievances arising from the fur trade, a group of Yamasees rose and killed 90 white traders and their families (April 15, 1715).

Plantation System

1730 - 1758

Typically, the plantation is large as farm organizations go, but it does not derive its essential character from size alone. Many so-called family farms are larger in area and often in value of product than some plantations, and the larger mechanized wheat and cotton farms of the American West are the equal of plantations in these measures and in capital employed as well.

Stono Rebellion

1739 - 1740

The Stono Rebellion of 1739 was known as the largest slave rebellion in history before the American Revolution. The South Carolina revolt was led by native Africans of the Congo, one in particular named Jemmy, a.k.a. Cato

Battle of Cowpens

1754 - 1833

At the Battle of Cowpens in South Carolina on January 17, 1781, during the Revolutionary War (1775-83), American troops under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan (1736-1802) routed British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton (1754-1833). The Americans inflicted heavy casualties on the British, and the battle was a turning point in the war’s Southern campaign.

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

The French Indian War was one of a series of wars between the British and French starting as early as the 1600s. The French Indian War took place from 1754 to 1763

sugar act

1764

1764 Act that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned importation of rum and French wines. These taxes affected only a certain part of the population, but the affected merchants were very vocal. Besides, the taxes were enacted (or raised) without the consent of the colonists. This was one of the first instances in which colonists wanted a say in how much they were taxed.

stamp act

1765 - 1766

An act for granting and applying certain stamp duties, and other duties, in the British colonies and plantations in America, towards further defraying the expences of defending, protecting, and securing the same;

sons of liberty

1765 - 1773

The Sons of Liberty was a group consisting of American patriots that originated in the pre-independence North American British colonies. The group was formed to protect the rights of the colonists and to take to the streets against the taxes by the British government. They are best known for undertaking the Boston Tea Party in 1773, which led to the Intolerable Acts (an intense crackdown by the British government), and a counter-mobilization by the Patriots.

Cotton Gin

1765 - 1825

In 1794, U.S.-born inventor Eli Whitney (1765-1825) patented the cotton gin, a machine that revolutionized the production of cotton by greatly speeding up the process of removing seeds from cotton fiber. By the mid-19th century, cotton had become America's leading export. Despite its success, the gin made little money for Whitney due to patent-infringement issues. Also, his invention offered Southern planters a justification to maintain and expand slavery even as a growing number of Americans supported its abolition. Based in part on his reputation for creating the cotton gin, Whitney later secured a major contract to build muskets for the U.S. government. Through this project, he promoted the idea of interchangeable parts--standardized, identical parts that made for faster assembly and easier repair of various devices. For his work, he is credited as a pioneer of American manufacturing.

Denmark Vesey Plot

1767 - 1781

The man later known as Denmark Vesey was born around 1767, probably on the Caribbean island of Saint Thomas. Joseph Vesey, a Carolina-based slaver, purchased the boy in 1781 as part of a cargo of 390 bondpeople. During the passage to the French colony of Saint-Domingue (Haiti), Vesey noticed the child’s “beauty, alertness, and intelligence” and employed him as a cabin boy.

tea act

1767 - 1770

The Tea Act, passed by Parliament on May 10, 1773, granted the British East India Company Tea a monopoly on tea sales in the American colonies. This was what ultimately compelled a group of Sons of Liberty members on the night of December 16, 1773 to disguise themselves as Mohawk Indians, board three ships moored in Boston Harbor, and destroy over 92,000 pounds of tea

Regulator Movement

1771

In South Carolina, the Regulator movement was an organized effort by backcountry settlers to restore law and order and establish institutions of local government.

Battle of Camden

1775 - 1783

On August 16, 1780, during Revolutionary War (1775-83), British forces under General Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805) routed American troops under General Horatio Gates (1727-1806) at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina. It was one of the Continental army’s most disastrous losses of the war.

Cherokee War

1776 - 1781

The Cherokee Indians had generally been friendly with the British in America since the early 1700s, siding with them against the French in the French and Indian Wars.

South Carolina Constitution of 1776

1776 - 1778

The Provincial Congress of South Carolina approves a new constitution and government on this day in 1776. The legislature renames itself the General Assembly of South Carolina and elects John Rutledge as president, Henry Laurens as vice president and William Henry Drayton as chief justice.

Articles of Confederation

1776 - 1781

After winning its independence from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War, the new country situated on the eastern seaboard of North America needed to fashion some form of governmental system. The Articles of Confederation represent the first constitutional agreement made between the 13 American states. There was a need for unity among the new states that were created as a result of the American Revolution. The relative powers of the individual states and the Continental Congress also needed to be defined for the young country. These realities led Congress to entrust John Dickinson with the drafting of a federal constitution.

The Declaration of Independence

1776

The Declaration of Independence wasn't signed on July 4, 1776. That was the day the wording was approved by the delegates to the Continental Congress.

reveolyn war

1776

The Revolutionary War, also known as the American Revolution, was fought between the American colonies and England. France also fought in the war for a period on the side of the colonies.

Battle of Kings Mountain

1780

A substantial Revolutionary force gathered against Ferguson from Watauga, west of the mountains, South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia. One group, armed with rifled weapons with which they had considerable skill, were the “Over the mountain men”.

Revolutionary War

1781 - 1783

The first man shot in the Boston Massacre was a black man named Crispus Attucks.
About 5,000 African American men and boys fought in the war.
George Washington rarely had even 15,000 men under his command at a time.

Battle of Eutaw Springs

1781 - 1788

After receiving reinforcements on this day in 1781, Major General Nathanael Greene of the Continental Army resumes offensive action against Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Stewart and the British soldiers at Eutaw Springs, located on the banks of the Santee River in South Carolina. The Patriots approached in the early morning, forcing the British soldiers to abandon their uneaten breakfasts in order to fight.

Great Compromise

1787 - 1800

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention came from different backgrounds and held different political views. For example, they argued about how many representatives each state should be allowed. The larger states favored the Virginia Plan. According to the Virginia Plan, each state would have a different number of representatives based on the state's population

3/5 Compromise

1787 - 1789

The 3/5 compromise was suggested by James Wilson and Roger Sherman in 1787 during the Philadelphia Convention. They proposed three-fifths of slaves should be counted as persons for representation in the House and Electoral College, and also to record the number for tax distribution.

Constitution

1787 - 2003

To start, the Constitution is a document written by a group of men in 1787. Yes, it is over 200 years old. We actually have old copies of the document they created. The master copies are stored at the National Archives in Washington D.C. In 2003, the Rotunda, where the Constitution is displayed, was rebuilt, and anyone can go and see the actual Constitution. We also have pictures of the Constitution on this site.

Cotton Trade

1800 - 1900

•While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton, China (24%), the United States (20%), and India (16%) together produce over half the world's cotton.

Total War

1800 - 1900

a war in which every available weapon is used and the nation's full financial resources are devoted

Embargo Act

1806 - 1807

Embargo Act of 1807 passed Dec. 22, 1807, by the U.S. Congress in answer to the British orders in council restricting neutral shipping and to Napoleon's restrictive Continental System. The U.S. merchant marine suffered from both the British and French, and Thomas Jefferson undertook to answer both nations with measures that by restricting neutral trade would show the importance of that trade. The first attempt was the Nonimportation Act, passed Apr. 18, 1806, forbidding the importation of specified British goods in order to force Great Britain to relax its rigorous rulings on cargoes and sailors (see impressment).

Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

1809 - 1865

The assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln took place on Good Friday,[1] April 14, 1865, as the American Civil War was drawing to a close. The assassination occurred five days after the commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, General Robert E. Lee, surrendered to Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant and the Union Army of the Potomac. Lincoln was the first American president to be assassinated,[2] though an unsuccessful attempt had been made on Andrew Jackson thirty years before in 1835. The assassination was planned and carried out by the well-known stage actor John Wilkes Booth, as part of a larger conspiracy in a bid to revive the Confederate cause.

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

•In August of 1814 a British expedition to Chesapeake Bay won an easy victory at Bladensburg and took Washington, burning the Capitol and the White House. The victorious British, however, were halted at Fort McHenry before they reached Baltimore, persuading British statesmen to end the war.

William T. Sherman

1820 - 1891

William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, educator and author. He served as a General in the Union Army during the American Civil War, for which he received recognition

Triangle Slave Trade

1820 - 1830

The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade began around the mid-fifteenth century when Portuguese interests in Africa moved away from the fabled deposits of gold to a much more readily available commodity -- slaves.

Abolitionist Movement

1823 - 1830

The goal of the abolitionist movement was the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation. Advocating for immediate emancipation distinguished abolitionists from more moderate anti-slavery advocates who argued for gradual emancipation, and from free-soil activists who sought to restrict slavery to existing areas and prevent its spread further west. Radical abolitionism was partly fueled by the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening, which prompted many people to advocate for emancipation on religious grounds. Abolitionist ideas became increasingly prominent in Northern churches and politics beginning in the 1830s, which contributed to the regional animosity between North and South leading up to the Civil War.

Fort Sumter

1829 - 1861

The Battle of Fort Sumter was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War.

Robert Smalls

1839 - 1915

Robert Smalls was an enslaved African American who, during and after the American Civil War, became a ship's pilot, sea captain, and politician.

Slave Codes

1840 - 1865

Slave owners did anything that they could to keep slaves from running away. They did not want the slaves to do or learn anything that might help them. One way the owners did this was with laws called slave codes.Slave codes were laws that were passed in states in the South. The laws tried to keep slaves from running away or fighting back. Each state had different laws. But all of the laws had parts that were the same.In the laws, the color line was very clear. If you had one African American person in your ancestry, you were black. It didn't matter how long ago that person had lived.Whether or not you were a slave depended on what your mother was. If your mother was a slave, you were a slave. It didn't matter if your father was a free man. This made slavery permanent for any slave family. A child born to a slave was always a slave.

Kansas-Nebrask Act

1854 - 1865

The Kansas-Nebrask Act was an 1854 bill that mandated "popular sovereignty"--allowing settlers of a territory to decide whether slavery would be allowed within a new state's borders. Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas--Abraham Lincoln's opponent in the influential Lincoln-Douglas debates--the bill overturned the Missouri Compromise's use of latitude as the boundary between slave and free territory. The conflicts that arose between pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers in the aftermath of the act's passage led to the period of violence known as Bleeding Kansas, and helped paved the way for the American Civil War (1861-65).

Dred Scott Decision

1857 - 1860

In March 1857, in one of the most controversial events preceding the American Civil War (1861-65), the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in the case of Dred Scott v. Sanford. The case had been brought before the court by Dred Scott, a slave who had lived with his owner in a free state before returning to the slave state of Missouri. Scott argued that his time spent in these locations entitled him to emancipation. In his decision, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, a staunch supporter of slavery, disagreed: The court found that no black, free or slave, could claim U.S. citizenship, and therefore blacks were unable to petition the court for their freedom. The Dred Scott decision incensed abolitionists and heightened North-South tensions, which would erupt in war just three years later

election of 1860

1860 - 1865

The United States presidential election of 1860 set the stage for the American Civil War.

Confederate States of America

1860 - 1861

During the American Civil War, the Confederate States of America consisted of the governments of 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union in 1860-61, carrying on all the affairs of a separate government and conducting a major war until defeated in the spring of 1865. Convinced that their way of life, based on slavery, was irretrievably threatened by the election of President Abraham Lincoln (November 1860), the seven states of the Deep South (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina and Texas) seceded from the Union during the following months. When the war began with the firing on Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861), they were joined by four states of the upper South (Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia).

Secessionist

1860 - 1861

Secession, as it applies to the outbreak of the American Civil War, comprises the series of events that began on December 20, 1860, and extended through June 8 of the next year when eleven states in the Lower and Upper South severed their ties with the Union. The first seven seceding states of the Lower South set up a provisional government at Montgomery, Alabama. After hostilities began at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor on April 12, 1861, the border states of Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the new government, which then moved its capital to Richmond, Virginia. The Union was thus divided approximately on geographic lines. Twenty-one northern and border states retained the style and title of the United States, while the eleven slave states adopted the nomenclature of the Confederate States of America.

The civil war

1861 - 1865

The war began when Confederate warships bombarded Union soldiers at Fort Sumter, South Carolina on April 12, 1861. The war ended in Spring, 1865. Robert E. Lee surrendered the last major Confederate army to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. The last battle was fought at Palmito Ranch, Texas, on May 13, 1865. Click here for a Civil War timeline.

Commerce Compromise

1877 - 1878

The Compromise of 1877 occurred after the Presidential Election of 1876, when Congress formed the Electoral Commission to resolve disputed Democratic Electoral votes from the South.

Nullification Controversy

1896 - 1965

After the war of 1812, the U.S government worked hard to encourage American manufacturing over British and formed many tariffs as a result. However, once Andrew Jackson stepped into office many claimed they believed these tariffs would be reduced and that they would no longer be as pressed to step up manufacturing in order to meet the demands the government was pushing for them to meet. When it became apparent that President Jackson would not be reducing the tariffs, many individuals began to voice discontentment over the issue