Sam Heinrich

First Egyptian Pyramid constructed, requiring knowledge of how to build pyramids with square bases out of blocks of stone.

http://0.tqn.com/d/math/1/0/D/F/triangler.gif The earliest known method of calculating the area of a triangle.

The Moscow Papyrus is written containing 25 examples of Egyptian math.

The Rhind Papyrus is written (approximate date). The Papyrus is 1 foot tall and 18 feet wide. It contains 87 math problems mostly dealing with fractions.

Thales studies similar triangles and wrote the proof that corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional. He also takes geometry from the level of measurement to the level of writing proofs

Pythagoras is regarded as the first pure mathematician to logically deduce geometric facts. However, Pythagoras didn't invent the theorem that is named after him and historians aren't completely sure he existed.

Zeno writes his paradoxes for example the Rabbit and the Hare.

Greeks begin to use written numerals.

Plato founds the Academy in Athens. He identifies five polyhedra now known as Platonic bodies.

Eudoxus makes a definition allowing the possibility of using irrational lengths and comparing them with rational lengths by using cross multiplication.

http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/pics/Euclid.jpgEuclid is considered to be one of the three greatest mathematicians of all time. He discovered Euclidean geometry which use his axioms and theorems as they relate to plane and solid figures.

Euclid writes The Elements, a book discussing Euclidean geometry. The Elements is a collection of 13 books of definitions, postulates, and axioms. It became the 3rd most popular book in the world, after the Koran and the Bible.

http://scienceprep.org/images/eureka.jpg Archimedes is regarded as the greatest Greek mathematician. He invented 3 simple machines, the pulley, screw, and lever. The Archimedes screw, a device used for raising water, is still in use today. He also analyzed the area of a circle and discovered how to calculate volumes and surface areas of spheres and cylinders.

Archimedes discovers the formula for how to calculate the volume of a cylinder.

Eratosthenes estimates the circumference of the Earth, only missing by about 15%.

Brahmagupta created a formula for finding the area of a quadrilateral, with sides a,b,c,d, enclosed by a circle: A = The Sq. Root of (s-a)(s-b)(s-c)(s-d). S is the semiperimeter, is found by the formula s=(a+b+c+d)/2

Medieval Muslims synthesized algebra and geometry by placing points on a coordinate plane.

Descartes synthesized algebra and geometry by placing points on a coordinate plane.

http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/history/BigPictures/Gauss_1803.jpeg Gauss developed the Gauss method for adding large amounts of consecutive numbers when he was six. However, his most important creation is that of non-Euclidean geometry. Non-Euclidean geometry is geometry not based on the postulates of Euclid. This includes times when the parallel postulate isn't true. Parallel Postulate - Through a given point not on a line, there is one and only one line parallel to it.

**** Lifetime of Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann. Riemann was one of the foremost geometers in the development of Non-Euclidean Geometry. He also was a lecturer at the University of Gottingen****

http://www.fractalwisdom.com/deepvalleymandel.gif In 1982, Benoit Mandelbrot publishing The Fractal Geometry of Nature, a book popularizing fractal geometry. Fractal geometry deals with fractioned dimensions.

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