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Ancient Civilizations
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West Asia
Sumerian city-states in lower Mesopotamia
3,500 BC - 2,350 BC
Indo-European Migrations
3,000 BC - 1,000 BC
Empire of Akkad in Mesopotamia
2,350 BC - 2,100 BC
Sumerians again rule lower Mesopotamia
2,100 BC - 1,900 BC
Babylonians (Amorites) rule in Mesopotamia
1,900 BC - 1,600 BC
Hammurabi's Reign
1,792 BC - 1,750 BC
Hittites dominate Anatolia
1,600 BC - 1,100 BC
Kingdom of Israel Fluorishes in Palestine
1,000 BC - 900 BC
Phoenicians fluorish in Eastern Mediterranean
1,000 BC - 800 BC
Assyrians dominate West Asia
900 BC - 600 BC
Chaldeans (New Babylonians) dominate West Asia
600 BC - 500 BC
Babylonian captivity of the Hebrews
586 BC - 539 BC
Persians dominate West Asia
500 BC - 300 BC
North Africa
Towns and villages along Nile unite to form small kingdoms
4000 BC - 3100 BC
Archaic Period (Egypt unified)
3100 BC - 2700 BC
Egypt's Old Kingdom (pyramids built)
2700 BC - 2200 BC
Egypt's First Intermediate Period
2200 BC - 2050 BC
Egypt's Middle Kingdom
2050 BC - 1700 BC
Egypt's Second Intermediate Period (Hyksos rule)
1700 BC - 1570 BC
Egypt's New Kingdom (Egyptian Empire)
1570 BC - 1075 BC
Hebrews leave Egypt (Moses)
1200 BC
Egypt under Libyan rule
900 BC - 700 BC
Egypt under Nubian rule (Kingdom of Kush)
700 BC - 600 BC
Assyrians invade Egypt
600 BC
Carthage flourishes in eastern Mediterranean
600 BC - 200 BC
Kingdom of Meroe flourishes along Upper Nile
500 BC - 300 BC
Persians dominate Egypt
500 BC - 300 BC
India
Farming in Indus Valley
7000 BC
Harappan (Indus Valley) civilization
2800 BC - 1700 BC
Indo-Europeans arrive in India
1500 BC
Vedic Age: Vedas, caste system, early Upanishads
1500 BC - 500 BC
Siddhartha Gautama (Buddah): founder of Buddhism
563 bc - 483 bc
Mahavira (Jina): founder of Jainism
540 bc - 486 bc
Persian conquest of northwest India
518 bc - 513 bc
Initial compilation of Mahabharata and Ramayana
500 bc - 300 bc
Alexander the Great's invasion of northwest India
327 bc - 326 bc
Mauryan Empire
321 bc - 184 bc
Reign of Chandragupta Maurya
321 bc - 184 bc
Reign of Ashoka
270 bc - 232 bc
Greco-Bactrian kingdom in northern India
180 bc - 50 bc
Kushan Kingdom; spread and division of Buddhism
50 bc - 240 ce
Gupta Empire
320 - 550
China
Farming in Yellow River Valley
7000 BC
Xia Dynasty
2200 BC - 1750 BC
Shang Dynasty
1750 BC - 1122 BC
Western Zhou Dynasty
1122 BC - 770 BC
Eastern Zhou Dynasty
770 BC - 256 BC
Confucius
551 BC - 479 BC
Laozi and origins of Daoism
500 BC
Warring States Era (Mencius, Xunzi)
403 BC - 221 BC
China united by Shihuangdi
231 BC - 221 BC
Reign of Qin Shihuangdi (First Emperor)
221 BC - 210 BC
Early Han Dynasty
202 BC - 6 CE
Reign of Han Gaozu (Liu Bang)
202 BC - 195 BC
Reign of Han Wudi (Martial Emperor)
147 BC - 87 BC
Origins of the Silk Road
100 BC
Reign of Wang Mang
9 CE - 23 CE
Later Han Dynasty
25 CE - 220 CE
Persia
The Prophet Zoroaster preaches that there is one god, Ahura Mazda
1300 BC - 1000 BC
Medes and Persians settle on Iranian plateau
1000 BC
Destruction of Nineveh by Median king Cyaxares
612 BC
Reign of Cyrus the Great
550 BC - 530 BC
Persian king Cyrus unites Medes and Persians under the Achaemenid dynasty
550 BC
Persia conquers Lydia
546 BC
Persia conquers Babylonia
539 BC
Reign of Cambyses
530 BC - 522 BC
Persia conquers Egypt
525 BC
Reign of Darius the Great, construction of Persepolis and the Royal Road
521 BC - 486 BC
Persia conquers the Indus Valley
517 BC
Persian forces reach of Danube River (Europe)
512 BC
Ionia revolts against Persian rule
499 BC
Athens defeats Persia at Marathon
490 BC
Reign of Xerxes
486 BC - 465 BC
Xerxes invades Greece and is defeated
480 BC - 479 BC
Peace of Callias: stalemate with Greece
448 BC
Alexander the Great defeats Persia
334 BC - 330 BC
Death of Alexander; creation of the Seleucid Kingdom
323 BC
The Parthian Empire
240 BC - 224 CE
The Sasanian Empire
227 CE - 642 CE
Greece
The Dark Age; Homer's writings are composed
1200 BC - 750 BC
The Archaic Period
750 BC - 500 BC
Greece colonizes the Mediterranean basin
750 BC - 550 BC
Draco's legal code in Athens
621 BC
Solon's reforms in Athens
594 BC
Formation of the Peloponnesian League
560 BC
The Classical Period
500 BC - 338 BC
Beginning of Ionian revolt against Persia
499 BC
Athenians defeat Persians at Marathon
490 BC
Sparta's sacrifice at Thermopylae
480 BC
Athenian victory over Persians at Salamis
480 BC
Formation of the Delian League
478 BC
Age of Pericles at Athens
461 BC - 429 BC
The Peloponnesian War
431 BC - 404 BC
Trail and execution of Socrates
399 BC
Philip of Macedon conquers Greece
338 BC
Conquests of Alexander the Great
335 BC - 323 BC
Era of the Hellenistic kingdoms
323 BC - 30 BC
The Roman Republic
Rome founded
753 BC
Roman Republic Established
509 BC
Struggle of the Orders
494 BC - 287 BC
Law of the 12 Tables
450 BC
First Punic War
264 BC - 241 BC
Second Punic War; Hannibal crosses the Alps
218 BC - 201 BC
Rome's conquest of the eastern Mediterranean
200 BC - 133 BC
Third Punic War; destruction of Carthage
149 BC - 146 BC
Conflict between Rome and its allies
91 BC - 88 BC
Julius Caesar's dictatorship
45 BC - 44 BC
The Second Triumvirate defeats Caesar's murderers
44 BC - 30 BC
Assasination of Julius Caesar
44 BC
Antony and Cleopatra
41 BC - 30 BC
The Roman Empire
Caesar Augustus's rule as imperator, conquest of Spain, Germany, SE Europe
27 BC - 14 CE
Birth of Jesus of Nazareth
4 BC
Crucifixion of Jesus in Jerusalem
29 CE
Paul of Tarsus: preaching Christianity in the eastern Mediterranean
45 CE - 58 CE
Misrule of Emperor Nero
54 CE - 68 CE
Rome's Golden Age
69 CE - 180 CE
Rule of the "barracks emperors"; onset of German migrations
235 CE - 284 CE
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