Ancient Civilizations

West Asia

Sumerian city-states in lower Mesopotamia

3,500 BC - 2,350 BC

Indo-European Migrations

3,000 BC - 1,000 BC

Empire of Akkad in Mesopotamia

2,350 BC - 2,100 BC

Sumerians again rule lower Mesopotamia

2,100 BC - 1,900 BC

Babylonians (Amorites) rule in Mesopotamia

1,900 BC - 1,600 BC

Hammurabi's Reign

1,792 BC - 1,750 BC

Hittites dominate Anatolia

1,600 BC - 1,100 BC

Kingdom of Israel Fluorishes in Palestine

1,000 BC - 900 BC

Phoenicians fluorish in Eastern Mediterranean

1,000 BC - 800 BC

Assyrians dominate West Asia

900 BC - 600 BC

Chaldeans (New Babylonians) dominate West Asia

600 BC - 500 BC

Babylonian captivity of the Hebrews

586 BC - 539 BC

Persians dominate West Asia

500 BC - 300 BC

North Africa

Towns and villages along Nile unite to form small kingdoms

4000 BC - 3100 BC

Archaic Period (Egypt unified)

3100 BC - 2700 BC

Egypt's Old Kingdom (pyramids built)

2700 BC - 2200 BC

Egypt's First Intermediate Period

2200 BC - 2050 BC

Egypt's Middle Kingdom

2050 BC - 1700 BC

Egypt's Second Intermediate Period (Hyksos rule)

1700 BC - 1570 BC

Egypt's New Kingdom (Egyptian Empire)

1570 BC - 1075 BC

Hebrews leave Egypt (Moses)

1200 BC

Egypt under Libyan rule

900 BC - 700 BC

Egypt under Nubian rule (Kingdom of Kush)

700 BC - 600 BC

Assyrians invade Egypt

600 BC

Carthage flourishes in eastern Mediterranean

600 BC - 200 BC

Kingdom of Meroe flourishes along Upper Nile

500 BC - 300 BC

Persians dominate Egypt

500 BC - 300 BC

India

Farming in Indus Valley

7000 BC

Harappan (Indus Valley) civilization

2800 BC - 1700 BC

Indo-Europeans arrive in India

1500 BC

Vedic Age: Vedas, caste system, early Upanishads

1500 BC - 500 BC

Siddhartha Gautama (Buddah): founder of Buddhism

563 bc - 483 bc

Mahavira (Jina): founder of Jainism

540 bc - 486 bc

Persian conquest of northwest India

518 bc - 513 bc

Initial compilation of Mahabharata and Ramayana

500 bc - 300 bc

Alexander the Great's invasion of northwest India

327 bc - 326 bc

Mauryan Empire

321 bc - 184 bc

Reign of Chandragupta Maurya

321 bc - 184 bc

Reign of Ashoka

270 bc - 232 bc

Greco-Bactrian kingdom in northern India

180 bc - 50 bc

Kushan Kingdom; spread and division of Buddhism

50 bc - 240 ce

Gupta Empire

320 - 550

China

Farming in Yellow River Valley

7000 BC

Xia Dynasty

2200 BC - 1750 BC

Shang Dynasty

1750 BC - 1122 BC

Western Zhou Dynasty

1122 BC - 770 BC

Eastern Zhou Dynasty

770 BC - 256 BC

Confucius

551 BC - 479 BC

Laozi and origins of Daoism

500 BC

Warring States Era (Mencius, Xunzi)

403 BC - 221 BC

China united by Shihuangdi

231 BC - 221 BC

Reign of Qin Shihuangdi (First Emperor)

221 BC - 210 BC

Early Han Dynasty

202 BC - 6 CE

Reign of Han Gaozu (Liu Bang)

202 BC - 195 BC

Reign of Han Wudi (Martial Emperor)

147 BC - 87 BC

Origins of the Silk Road

100 BC

Reign of Wang Mang

9 CE - 23 CE

Later Han Dynasty

25 CE - 220 CE

Persia

The Prophet Zoroaster preaches that there is one god, Ahura Mazda

1300 BC - 1000 BC

Medes and Persians settle on Iranian plateau

1000 BC

Destruction of Nineveh by Median king Cyaxares

612 BC

Reign of Cyrus the Great

550 BC - 530 BC

Persian king Cyrus unites Medes and Persians under the Achaemenid dynasty

550 BC

Persia conquers Lydia

546 BC

Persia conquers Babylonia

539 BC

Reign of Cambyses

530 BC - 522 BC

Persia conquers Egypt

525 BC

Reign of Darius the Great, construction of Persepolis and the Royal Road

521 BC - 486 BC

Persia conquers the Indus Valley

517 BC

Persian forces reach of Danube River (Europe)

512 BC

Ionia revolts against Persian rule

499 BC

Athens defeats Persia at Marathon

490 BC

Reign of Xerxes

486 BC - 465 BC

Xerxes invades Greece and is defeated

480 BC - 479 BC

Peace of Callias: stalemate with Greece

448 BC

Alexander the Great defeats Persia

334 BC - 330 BC

Death of Alexander; creation of the Seleucid Kingdom

323 BC

The Parthian Empire

240 BC - 224 CE

The Sasanian Empire

227 CE - 642 CE

Greece

The Dark Age; Homer's writings are composed

1200 BC - 750 BC

The Archaic Period

750 BC - 500 BC

Greece colonizes the Mediterranean basin

750 BC - 550 BC

Draco's legal code in Athens

621 BC

Solon's reforms in Athens

594 BC

Formation of the Peloponnesian League

560 BC

The Classical Period

500 BC - 338 BC

Beginning of Ionian revolt against Persia

499 BC

Athenians defeat Persians at Marathon

490 BC

Sparta's sacrifice at Thermopylae

480 BC

Athenian victory over Persians at Salamis

480 BC

Formation of the Delian League

478 BC

Age of Pericles at Athens

461 BC - 429 BC

The Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

Trail and execution of Socrates

399 BC

Philip of Macedon conquers Greece

338 BC

Conquests of Alexander the Great

335 BC - 323 BC

Era of the Hellenistic kingdoms

323 BC - 30 BC

The Roman Republic

Rome founded

753 BC

Roman Republic Established

509 BC

Struggle of the Orders

494 BC - 287 BC

Law of the 12 Tables

450 BC

First Punic War

264 BC - 241 BC

Second Punic War; Hannibal crosses the Alps

218 BC - 201 BC

Rome's conquest of the eastern Mediterranean

200 BC - 133 BC

Third Punic War; destruction of Carthage

149 BC - 146 BC

Conflict between Rome and its allies

91 BC - 88 BC

Julius Caesar's dictatorship

45 BC - 44 BC

The Second Triumvirate defeats Caesar's murderers

44 BC - 30 BC

Assasination of Julius Caesar

44 BC

Antony and Cleopatra

41 BC - 30 BC

The Roman Empire

Caesar Augustus's rule as imperator, conquest of Spain, Germany, SE Europe

27 BC - 14 CE

Birth of Jesus of Nazareth

4 BC

Crucifixion of Jesus in Jerusalem

29 CE

Paul of Tarsus: preaching Christianity in the eastern Mediterranean

45 CE - 58 CE

Misrule of Emperor Nero

54 CE - 68 CE

Rome's Golden Age

69 CE - 180 CE

Rule of the "barracks emperors"; onset of German migrations

235 CE - 284 CE