APUSH: Unit 7 (1865-1945)

Imperialism, WWI, the 20s, the depression, the New Deal, WWII

Presidents

And VP or cabinet

Andrew Johnson/SoS: Seward

April 15, 1865 - March 4, 1869

Ulysses S. Grant

March 4, 1869 - March 4, 1877

Rutherford B. Hayes

March 4, 1877 - March 4, 1881

James A. Garfield*

March 4, 1881 - September 19, 1881

Chester A. Arthur

September 19, 1881 - March 4, 1885

Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1885 - March 4, 1889

Benjamin Harrison

March 4, 1889 - March 4, 1893

Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1893 - March 4, 1897
  1. Against annexing Hawaii

William McKinley*

March 4, 1897 - September 14, 1901
  1. For annexing Hawaii

Theodore Roosevelt

September 14, 1901 - March 4, 1909

William Howard Taft

March 4, 1909 - March 4, 1913

Woorow Wilson

March 4, 1913 - March 4, 1921

Economics

Panic of 1893

1893
  1. This increased the desire for new markets (ie. imperialism, colonies, etc.); in part increased support for intervening in Cuban war

Economic boom of the 20s (sort of)

1920 - 1929
  1. After WWI ended the economy boomed. The post-war slump hit a little later, but the economy rebounded in 1920 and didn't stop growing.
  2. Unemployment down, consumption up, etc.

  3. This was an era of consumerism. More stuff was targeted at consumers. Consumers bought more stuff. Electrical appliances started to become popular as electricity became more common. Cars...

  4. Also, regular peoples getting involved in stocks

  5. Bad: Income disparity up! Not all industries prospered. Farmers had it really bad.

Dawes Plan

1924
  1. Germany could not pay their reparations, so...
  2. The US invested $2.5 billion in them so they could pay them back... ??? ???????????????????????????????????????

Social

Blacks, women, Natives, labor

Wave of Mexicans

1910

Starts in 1910, goes through the 30s.

At least 700,000, many more illegally. They faced racism.

Blacks and the war

1917 - 1918
  1. 400,000 blacks served. They were treated as second class and assigned the most menial work. Blacks were given no awards and not allowed in the victory marches.

The Great Migration

1917
  1. Due to the war, a "great migration" of blacks from the South occurred. They left due to (1) the shitty life in the south--racism, poor pay, segregation and (2) the opportunities in the north due to need for labor and fewer immigrants + better pay.
  2. A significant amount left the south. by 1920 500,000 had left.
  3. Racial tensions worsened and almost 100 lynching occurred from 1917-1918. A race riot happened in St. Louis Illinois, leaving dozens of blacks dead and thousands homeless.

Rice Riots after WWI

1919
  1. A wave of racist violence swept across the US after WWI. Black soliders were harassed, lynched, and burnt alive.
  2. In Chicago there was a massive riot in which 23 blacks were killed, and 1000s were left homeless.

Red Scare/Sacco and Vanzetti

1919 - 1920
  1. Starting in 1919 after anarchists sent bombs to over 30 prominent Americans, a Red Scare swept across America. This was fueled by the nationalism caused by WWI, fear of Bolshevism, etc
  2. Laws were passed that reflected this... The American Legion formed which was vigilante... Some mayor warned about May Day parade violence.
  3. It was worst when Sacco and Vanzetti were anarchists and executed on weak evidence.
  4. After people realized there was no danger, it died down.

Steel strike of 1919

1919
  1. After the failed Homestead strike, steel workers had no union. The AFL tried to unite them, but the strike failed.
  2. Federal troops were called in, 18 workers died, 100s were beaten. It was justified because they were radicals.

18th Amendment

1920

Prohibition begins.... Gang violence and stuff

19th amendment

1920

Thanks Stanton

Roaring 20s

1920 - 1929
  1. Automobile changed rural life (by allowing easier transportation of goods) and city life (by reducing dependence on rail and street cars, and allowing suburbs to pop up)
  2. America's culture began to homogenize due to stricter immigration and a national media (film, radio, magazines, newspapers, sports, etc.) 2.5. The "flaming youth" started going on dates and dances, going to speakeasies to drink... Girls wore pants or skirts that stopped at their knees (flappers)!!!!!!!11
  3. Intellectuals were not happy with the materialism of this era

Harlem Renaissance

1920 - 1929
  1. A movement that emphasized the importance of black culture. Blacks used African and African-American culture to create new art that led to the resurgence of paintings, literature, music, etc. among blacks. Jazz was really important, so was Langston Hughes

2nd KKK

1920 - 1925
  1. The KKK reemerged in first half of the 20s due to: Nativism, anti-Catholocism, anti-Semitism, fear of foreign radicalism.

  2. They had a huge membership (5 million)

  3. They had a large influence over local and state politics

  4. They declined in 1925 after a corruption scandal

Nativism, Immigration, Evangelism

1920 - 1929
  1. a. Germans (during WWI) b. Fear of radicalism and stuff c. The red scare
  2. led America to support stricter immigration

  3. Nativism and discrimination ran rampant during this time

  4. Evangelist fought against this science and evolution nonsense

Latin America/Imperialism

US gets most-favored-nation status for trade w/ China

1844

Commodore Perry opens trade with Japan

1854
  1. Note Japan was a more closed off country before

Alaska purchased

1867
  1. Seward purchased Alaska for ~$7 million
  2. Alaska was not guaranteed statehood, unlike all other previous acquired territories, symbolizing America's move toward imperialism

Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power Upon History and the Navy

1890
  1. Alfred Thayer Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890) was very influential and kick started America's expansion and modernization of their Navy (Germany and Great Britain did the same)

Crisis in Chile

1891
  1. In 1891 a Chilean mob attacked American sailors, two of whom died.
  2. Harrison was not pleased and threatened war, a surprising change from all those softies before him
  3. Chile gave in

Revolution in Hawaii

January 17, 1893
  1. The US had previously made a treaty with Hawaii giving them exclusive tax free selling rights on sugar to the US, which made their economy dependent on sugar. (Haoles had also come in to make sugar farms)
  2. The McKinley Tariffs reintroduced competition, which was bad for their economy.
  3. The US provided ~150 marines to assist in a revolution to overthrow the new monarch (who wanted to restore native-ness)
  4. The new haole (American) government was to be annexed, but Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii due to the nature of the rebellion.

Cuban War of Independence

1895 - 1898
  1. Caused in part by the US reinstating a tariff on Cuban sugar (note how Cuba and Hawaii became dependent on exporting sugar to America)
  2. Spain was really mean (see reconcentration camps)
  3. Yellow journalism made the issue very important to Americans
  4. Cleveland did not want to intervene in fear of Cuba eventually getting annexed despite Cuba's wishes

"Crisis" in Venezuela/British Guinea

1895 - 1896
  1. Border conflict between those two countries
  2. The US wanted arbitrate the situation (due to Monroe Doctrine)
  3. Britain refused
  4. Grover Cleveland told Congress to fix the problem and enforce the border
  5. Fearing conflict, Britain gave in

Once again, demonstrating the more aggressive behavior of these presidents

Yellow journalism and the USS Maine

1895 - 1898

Spanish-American War

April 25, 1898 - August 12, 1898
  1. Theodore Roosevelt (Secretary of Navy at time) told Naval Commander Dewey to attack in Manila
  2. Almost 400 Filipinos dead, no American deaths in combat

  3. Down in Cuba America kicked butt, despite some initial losses

  4. Spain and the US agreed to stop fighting after 16 weeks, and the Treaty of Paris came after

Congress declares war on Spain

April 25, 1898
  1. When McKinley took office he said he wasn't necessarily for war with Cuba, but did not like what Spain was doing.
  2. McKinley wanted to mediate, Spain refused
  3. McKinley asked Congress to declare war, so they did
  4. The Teller Amendment guaranteed Cuba would not get annexed (later replaced by the Platt Amendment)

Anti-Imperialist Leage

June 15, 1898
  1. William Jennings Bryan, Grover Cleveland, Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, Jane Adams, etc.
  2. In response to Treaty of Paris (which was purely imperialistic)

Hawaii annexed

July 7, 1898
  1. Due to Dewey's success at Manilla, interest in annexing Hawaii re-surged
  2. It happened

Treaty of Paris (Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Philippines)

December 10, 1898
  1. Treaty after the "Splendid Little War" ended that gave the US:
    a. Cuba
    b. Puerto Rico
    c. Guam
    d. The Philippines (for $20 million)

  2. Note this was even worse than the Alaska treaty, which was already bad, because it didn't guarantee statehood OR citizenship. This angered Democrats, Populists

  3. Also note how these countries were treated afterward.

Philippine-American war and after

1899 - 1902
  1. The US had helped the Philippines fight off Spain.
  2. The US stayed and the Philippines was like, "thanks but go away now"
  3. Unfortunately the US could not help the Philippines fight off the US. A brutal war ensued, and ~600,000 died (or more--numbers vary greatly)

  4. Afterward the US set up an American-like gov't in which the US selected them a governor and stuff (similar to Puerto Rican one)

US and Cuba

1900

1900 and beyond
1. For the first two (from 1898) years the US did things like sanitation projects
2. Then they let them hold a constitutional convention, but due to the Platt Amendment (f you platt) they were required to lease land to the US and to allow the US to intervene.

US and Puerto Rico (Foraker)

1900

1898 and beyond
1. Puerto Ricans were not American citizens
2. The US appointed their governor and some other stuff (similar to one the US later sets up in the Philippines) -- set up in the Foraker Act

"Dollar diplomacy"

1903

1903???

Policy started by Taft of investing in Latin America for economic reasons

Roosevelt Corollary

1904
  1. Restatement of the Monroe Doctrine in regard to Latin America

Mexican Revolution

1914 - 1917

Starts around 1911, US ends involvement around 1917

Basically, a bunch of different groups were fighting for control after some dictator stepped down. Eventually some US citizens on a boat got arrested there. The military released them and apologized, then Wilson occupied Veracruz.... Pancho Villa killed some Americans, so Wilson sent 7000 troops deep into Mexico... Wilson did not leave until 1917 in preparations for WWI.

IMPORTANCE:
1. Wilson was very internationalist like many of the time.
2. He was especially so with Latin America, like many others
3. Relations with Latin America got much worse, because Wilson is a twat.

WWI

The stupidest war since the War of 1812

Peace in Europe, arms race

1870 - 1907

Peace among the great European powers. They formed alliances during this period and gathered arms.

Beginning of WWI

1914

Somehow, this assassinations pissed enough people off... Alliances tangled, ???, war!

Neutrality rights, German U-Boats, and the Lusitania

1914 - 1916

Wilson really wanted to remain neutral, but those pesky German U-boats kept on sinking American goods and even ships with lots of civilian Americans, like the British Lusitania. This rustled Wilson's jimmies.

After some letter, Germany eventually stopped using them on civilian ships. However, they re-continued use after a stalemate. The US broke off all ties with Germany after that,

Assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary

June 28, 1914

This assassination happened when Europe was forming alliances and gathering arms....

Zimmerman Telegram

1917

A telegram was leaked that revealed Germany encouraged Mexico to support the Germans if the US joined the war by promising them much of the land lost in the Mexican-American war.

This really pissed off America.

Sinking of 6 American merchant ships

1917

Around the Zimmerman telegram, six merchant ships were sunk by German U-boats. America not happy.

Civil liberties during the war

1917 - 1918
  1. The Espionage Act, then the Sedition Act, prohibited criticism of war and interference with the draft. 1500 were arrested and many newspapers (like the NY Times) prohibited from circulation.

  2. Socialists, the IWW, wobblies, etc. were often harassed during this period, and a forerunner to the ACLU sprang up.

The economy during the war

1917 - 1918
  1. The government had a lot of control over the economy during this time.
    a. The War Industrial Board, led by Baruch, regulated many industries (like quotas and stuff), and production increased 20% under him.
    b. They took control of railroads, etc. to make them more efficient

  2. Many businesses voluntarily made contracts with the government.

  3. Individuals were encouraged to start their own Liberty Gardens to conserve consumption, and to have Meatless Mondays and Wheatless Wednesdays.

The Creel Committee and Public Opinion

1917 - 1918
  1. Antiwar sentiments were and had been on the rise, so Wilson created the Creel Committee...
    a. "Four Minute Men" gave speeches
    b. Propaganda

  2. People became very racist/xenophobic, especially toward Germans. German composers were banned, German sounding foods were banned, speaking German was made illegal in many places, etc.

US enters WWI

1917 - 1918

After all that jazz, Wilson asks congress to declare war, and they overwhelmingly approve.

  1. The American Expeditionary Force, or AEF, stopped the "final blow" so they could have some involvement in the war.
  2. Wilson tried to keep them as separate as possible from the rest of the allies to make America stand out (important for peace negotiations)

Treaty of Versailles

28 June 1919
  1. Before the war ended Wilson proposed his 14 points. He called for arms reductions, self-determination, and a league of nations.
  2. When the major allies came together to negotiate a peace treaty, Wilson called for his 14-point type stuff, while Europe was more selfish... ?
  3. The Senate did not approve due to Republicans and conservatives who opposed it because it could drag the US into wars and European affairs. So the US never joined the League of Nations