Art History Timeline

Ancient Near East

White Temple

3200 BCE - 3000 BCE

Uruk (Warka)
To moon goddess (Nanna) or sky goddess (Anu)

Warka Vase

3200 BCE - 3000 BCE

Presentation of offering to Inanna
Has registers with ground line
First narrative relief
No real characterization, little overlapping, composite view

Sumerian Art

3000 BCE - 2300 BCE

"Fertile Crescent"
Developed writing (cuneiform)
Sumeria not unified (city-states)
Built ziggurats (on cardinal points, bent-axis stairs, "waiting rooms")

Statues of Worshippers

2700 BCE - 2600 BCE

Wide eyes = eternal wakefulness
Hierarchic scale (more important = bigger)
All men the same, all women the same

Bull-headed Lyre

2600 BCE

Wood/gold leaf
Soundbox has animals acting like people
Top is heraldic composition

War Standard

2600 BCE

Royal Cemetery, Ur
Wood with shell/lapis lazuli
War side and peace side
Composite view

Akkadian Art

2300 BCE - 2150 BCE

Sumeria conquered by Sargon of Akkad
Royal power based on loyalty to king, not city state
Art focuses on ruler

Victory Stele of Naram-Sin

2254 BCE - 2218 BCE

Susa, Iran
King has horned helmet (divinity)
Hierarchic scale

Head of Akkadian Ruler

2250 BCE - 2200 BCE

Many textures, a little bit of character
More realistic

Neo-Sumeria Art

2150 BCE - 1800 BCE

Gudea in power
Huge ziggurats, lots of statues of Gudea

Seated Gudea with Plans

2100 BCE

Girsu, Iraq
Diorite (expensive)
Elongated fingers/toes
Sense of calm/peace
Head missing, inscriptions in skirt

Ziggurat at Ur

2100 BCE

Mud brick
Largest ziggurat (270 ft)
Early example of buttresses

Babylonian Art

1800 BCE - 1600 BCE

Ruled by Hammunrabi (codified laws)
Hanging gardens, mud walls

Hammurabi's Code

1780 BCE

Susa, Iran
Top is Hammurabi given right to pass laws by Shamash
Foreshortening in beard
Laws codified on column

Elamite Art

1600 BCE - 1000 BCE

Elamite Empire lasted until 641 BCE
Capital destroyed by Assyrians (Ashurbanipal)

Hittite Art

1600 BCE - 1000 BCE

Hittites in Anatolia built STONE city with stone lions at gate

Lion Gate

1400 BCE

Boghazkoy, Turkey
Lions are defensive, protective

Queen Napir-Asu

1350 BCE - 1300 BCE

Susa, Iran
Queen wanted it to be a permanent piece, inscription is for protection
Crossed arms = fertility/peace
No negative space

Assyrian Art

1000 BCE - 612 BCE

From Assur (along Tigris)
Powerful - once ruled huge empire

Assyrian archers pursuing enemies

875 BCE - 860 BCE

NW Palace of Ashurnasirpal II
Composite view, different perpectives, low relief
Battlefield -- enemies -- castle

Citadel of Sargon II

720 BCE - 705 BCE

Dur Sharrukin
Mud, 25 acres
On a platform, has a ziggurat
Thick wall, pretty symmetrical


720 BCE - 705 BCE

Citadel of Sargon II
Limestone, 13'10"
Human head on bull/eagle body
Composite view (5 legs) - power/movement
Guarding citadel

Ashurbanipal hunting lions

645 BCE - 640 BCE

N Palace, Ninevah
King's success is violent/exaggerated
Animals have emotion, people don't (Dying Lioness)
Musculature in animals


612 BCE - 520 BCE

King Nebuchadenezzar restored Babylon to great city
Hanging gardens, mud brick with some glazed tile

Ishtar Gate

575 BCE

Glazed brick
Each brick glazed separately, animals in low relief (bulls/horses - animals guards)
Complex mosaic
Lions sacred to Ishtar (goddess of love/fertility/war)


521 BCE - 465 BCE

Mud with stone facing
Royal audience hall, fortified complex on platform
Built by Darius I and Xerxes, destroyed by Alex the Great
Built to be center of attention
Stairway frieze is gift-bringers
GREEK INFLUENCE in figures (robes etc.) (first such example)

Persian Art

520 BCE - 330 BCE

Cyrus of Persia captured Babylon, made Persia largest empire to date
Large architecture, lots of columns with TWO BULL CAPITALS holding wooden roof

Sasanian Art

224 BCE - 636

New Persian empire, wars against Romans/Armenians
Arabs drove out Sasanians in 636 CE

Palace of Shapur I


Cfesiphon, Iraq
Barrel vault (Roman influence)
Blind arcades, facade on front

Head of Sasanian King

350 CE

Silver with mercury gilding
Thought to be Shapur II
Suggested splendor of court life
Repousse - shaped sheet, details pounded from behind


Pre-Dynastic Art

3500 BCE - 2575 BCE

Beginning of sophisticated society on Nile
Egypt divided
Upper = south, dry, rocky, rustic
Lower = north, opulent, urban, populous

Palette of Narmer

3000 BCE

Upper Egypt
Palettes held eye makeup
Depicts the unification of Egypt under Narmer (wears hats of Upper and Lower Egypt)
Narrative, labeled work

Pyramid of Djoser

2676 BCE - 2625 BCE

Saqqara, by Imhotep
Imhotep = first recorded artist
Was mastaba (underground tomb), got built up
Oldest pyramid, symbolized god-like power of pharaoh

Old Kingdom

2575 BCE - 2134 BCE

Upper/Lower united, pharaohs became absolute rulers
Construction/composition rules established
Funerary rites super important (mastabas)
Blocky, symmetrical, uniform statues


2520 BCE - 2494 BCE

Traditional form (follows canon)
Built for the ka

Great Pyramids

2500 BCE

Giza (Dynasty IV)
Three pyramids (Khufu -- Khufu -- Menkare)
Symbols of the sun/Ra
Funerary complex not on east (sunrise not blocked)
3 smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives/mother
Built on west of Nile (for sunset)

Middle Kingdom

2040 BCE - 1640 BCE

Followed century of unrest after collapse of Old Kingdom pharaohs
Rock-cut tombs

Rock-cut Tombs

1950 BCE - 1900 BCE

Fluted columns
Hollowed out cliff
Hortico/vestibule = porch
REPLACED mastabas
Columns for decoration, not support

New Kingdom

1550 BCE - 1070 BCE

No new pyramids - Valley of the Dead
More natural figures/grandiose architecture
Pylon temples/hypostyle halls
Some relaxation of traditional conventions

Temple of Hatshepsut

1450 BCE

Deir al-Bahri (Dynasty XVIII)
3 terraces connected by ramps
Had gardens, was like an oasis
Built to worship queen in
Defaced by Thutmose II
First time the achievements of a woman are celebrated

Musicians and Dancers

1400 BCE - 1350 BCE

Tomb of Nebamun, Thebes
Dry fresco
Entertainment in afterlife
Rare frontal example (artists getting creative)


1353 BCE - 1335 BCE

Temple of Aton
Sandstone, 13'
Long face, chubby, weak arms (NOT idealized)
Typical Amarna piece


1353 BCE - 1335 BCE

Tel el-Amarna
Painted limestone
Left unfinished
Renowned for beauty


1353 BCE - 1335 BCE

Tiye was very strong figure, influenced her husband/sons

Death Mask of Tutankhamen

1323 BCE

Gold/precious stone
Weak ruler but tomb was unplundered
Mask makes him look stronger than he was

Hypostyle Hall

1290 BCE - 1224 BCE

Columned hall
Clerestory created from higher central columns (for light)

Temple of Ramses II

1257 BCE

Abu Simbel, Nubia
Four identical, idealized statues of Ramses
Flaunting of power

Late Period

712 BCE - 332 BCE

Amarna Period
Akhenaton shifted religion, brought changes in art
Less traditional, more expressive

Pylon Temple

237 BCE - 57 BCE

Temple of Horus
2 sloping, trapezoidal sides with small entrance
Sunken relief - image pushed in instead of raised up

The Aegean

Minoan Art

3000 BCE - 1400 BCE

Rich off of the ocean (marine themes)

Cycladic Art

3000 BCE - 1600 BCE

Neolithic, no writing
Mostly small pieces, lots of marble/metal
Islands, so influenced by the sea/trading
Females are standing, males are seated

Male Lyre Player

2700 BCE

Keros, Greece
Just holding lyre, not playing it
Negative space

Palace of Knossos

1700 BCE - 1400 BCE

6 acres
Labyrinth floor plan (Palace of Minos)
Columns were tapered down, had CUSHION capitals
Discovered by Sir Arthur Evans

Landscape with Swallows

1650 BCE

"Spring Fresco"
Earliest landscape, very free-flowing/natural, no narrative

Snake Goddess

1600 BCE

At Palace of Knossos
Fertility/life themes

Funerary Mask

1600 BCE - 1500 BCE

Gold is a giveaway for Mycenaeaen art
Repousee technique

Harvester Vase

1500 BCE

Bas relief with composite figures
People have individual energy
Skeletal/muscular systems, not cookie cutter

Bull Leaping

1500 BCE

At Palace of Knossos
Women are light, men are tan
Dainty figures in profile
Some Egyptian influence

Mycenaean Art

1400 BCE - 1100 BCE

Greek mainland
Large citadels, rich in gold
Influenced by Egyptians (techniques, gold, graves)
Cyclopean blocks

Lion Gate of Mycenae

1300 BCE - 1250 BCE

Citadel of Mycenae, excavated by Heinrich Schliemann
Guardian lions
CORBELED arch over post and lintel
Lions are relieving triangle

Treasury of Atreus

1300 BCE - 1250 BCE

Actually a tholos (beehive) tomb
Corbeled vault (biggest before Pantheon)



900 BCE - 725 BCE

Pottery, small sculptures
Amphoras (2 handled wine vases), kraters (mixing bowl for water/wine)
Figures are geometric/dainty

Dipylon Vase

760 BCE - 750 BCE

Krater vase
Holes in the bottom to filter offerings down (libation)
Grave market, no empty space


725 BCE - 600 BCE

Human figure getting more detailed
Wide eyes/long appendages

Mantiklos Apollo

700 BCE - 680 BCE

Thebes, Greece
Abdomen beginning to be defined

Lady of Auxerre

650 BCE - 625 BCE

Hands attached to body so they don't break off
Daedalic style


600 BCE - 480 BCE

Egyptian influences
Wide eyes, geometric hair


590 BCE

Nude male youth
Grave marker
Compare to Egyptian art
Though shoulders are less square, sculpture is in the round
More emphasis on human body (more flow-y)

West Pediment

580 BCE

Corfu, Greece
Very awkward pediment design
Creepy Medusa

Temple of Hera I

550 BCE

Paestum, Italy
Early Doric design (bulky)
Columns have entasis (middle swelling)
Line of columns in center (atypical)


530 BCE

Grave marker
Archaic smile, Egyptian pose
Much more defined (compare to Kourous)
More proportionally correct

Temple of Aphaia

500 BCE - 490 BCE

1:2 ratio
2 rows of columns in cella
Pediment filled more naturally (creepy fallen warriors)


480 BCE - 440 BCE

Transition to Classical Period
1:2 ratio in temples
Pediment was more naturally filled
Undraped sculpture, complex drapery

Kritios Boy

479 BCE

Severe Style - transition between Archaic/Classical
First known example of CONTRAPPOSTO

Temple of Hera II

460 BCE

1:2 ratio


450 BCE

by Myron
Not a natural pose (not accurate), but shows off body
Two axis - head to legs, discus to hand


440 BCE - 400 BCE

Greatest wealth/influence
Polykleitos and his Canon (1:7)


439 BCE

by Polykleitos
Frequently copied, super influential
Idealized body, mask face, looking away


435 BCE - 420 BCE

coordinated by Phidias
Parthenon, Propylaia (entry stairs), Erechtheion (caryatids) (first fully Ionic temple), Temple of Athena Nike (Athena adjusting sandal)


400 BCE - 330 BCE

Aphrodite of Knidos

350 BCE

by Praxiteles (1:8)
First female undraped sculpture
Nude yet modest
Goddesses becoming more human

Hermes and infant Dionysus

340 BCE



331 BCE

by Lysippos
only artist allowed to portray Alex the Great


330 BCE - 31 BCE

Pieces becoming more detailed/emotional
Corinthian capital

Battle of Issus

310 BCE

by Philoxenos
Colored stone/tesserae
Alex the Great at head, vs. Darius
3/4 view of horses

Dying Gaul

230 BCE

Lots of emotion (pain, hurt)
Copper blood
Neck ring typical of Gauls

Nike Alighting on Warship

190 BCE

Was a fountain (water splashing = warship)
--more senses = Hellenistic (sight, sound, feel, hear)

Pergamon Altar

125 BCE

Gigantomachy frieze
High reliefs
Compare to Persepolis stairway

Old Market Woman

125 BCE

Twisted, old
Realistic depiction

Venus de Milo

120 BCE

Not as undraped as the Aphrodite of Knidos but more sensual

Seated Boxer

75 BCE

Moment in time vs. idealization
Old, beat-up

Early S/SE Asia

Early China/Korea

Early Japan



510 BCE - 500 BCE

Lifesize, was on temple roof (typically Etruscan)
Lots of motion
Archaic smile

Capitoline Wolf

500 BCE - 480 BCE

Depicts Romulus and Remus
Wolf is very emotive



753 BCE - 509 BCE

Etruscan society
Founded by Romulus
Mixture of Etruscan and Greek

Pompeii Wall Paintings

600 BCE

1st Style = resembles marble/stone
2nd Style = illusion of depth
3rd Style = fantasy imagery
4th Style = combination of 2nd/3rd styles

Still Life with Peaches

The Republic

509 BCE - 27 BCE

Tarquinius Superbus (last Etruscan king) overthrown, constitutional government established
Rome quickly conquered all neighbors

E. Empire

27 BCE - 100 CE

Caesar murdered in 44 BCE, civil war for 13 years
Egypt becomes province
Augustus is head honcho
Pax Romana

Augustus of Primaporta

20 BCE

Propaganda for Augustus/military
Based on Doryphoros
Battles on breastplate, cupid = divine descent

Ara Pacis Augustae

13 BCE

Commemorates the Pax Romana
Greek influenced

Porta Maggiore

50 AD

Where two aqueducts converged


50 AD

30 mile long aqueduct
3 arch levels (base, road, aqueduct)

Flavian Amphitheater

70 CE - 80 CE

Constructed under Vespasian
Could fit 50,000
2 amphitheaters put together (oval)
Each of 3 levels are different styles

Arch of Titus

82 CE

Triumphal arch (billboard)
Celebrating Titus' conquest of Jerusalem
Historical document

High Empire

100 - 250

Rome at its peak
Largest and most wealthy empire

Column of Trajan

114 CE

Continuous narrative in a spiral
Registers get larger as you go up, so you could see them

Arch of Trajan

115 CE

Lots of reliefs on outside
Glorifies Trajan


120 CE

Temple for all gods
Dome and width are both equal, forms a sphere (heavens)
Ceiling rests on coffers

Marcus Aurelius

175 CE

Bronze (rare)
Equestrian statue
Marcus is larger than life (hierarchic) (godlike)
Christians thought it was Constantine so didn't melt it

Portrait of Caracalla

211 CE - 217 CE

Lots of textures
Suspecting glance (makes viewer wonder why)

Late Empire

250 - 450

Decline in economy
Pagan world transforms to Christian Middle Ages

Four Terrarchs

305 CE

Four-person ruling party
Not individualized

Arch of Constantine

312 CE - 315 CE

Largest arch in Rome
Glorified Constantine's victories
The sculptures are a sort of collage (recycled)

Late Antiquity

Ceiling of Cubiculum

300 CE

Catacomb ceiling
Portrays story of Jonah

Santa Costanza

337 CE - 351 CE

Central plan
Ambulatory mosaic has vines/wine themes

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus

359 CE

Statues in niches tell stories from Old/New Testament

Old Saint Peter's Church

360 CE

Similar to Roman basilicas (lawhouses)
Nave, side aisles, narthex, atrium, apse, clerestory, triforium

Santa Sabina

422 CE - 432 CE

Basilica plan
Coffered roof, simple exterior

Parting of Lot and Abraham

442 CE

In nave of Santa Maria
Clustered heads is typically Christian
Floating/flat but with some shadow/perspective

Galla Placidia

450 CE

Cruciform shape with crossing tower
Pristine mosaics
Christ as Good Shepard


Early Byzantine

330 CE - 726 CE

Roman Empire split, Byzantium in east
Spoke Greek, supported Christians
Pendentives, squinches,
Frontal-floating-flat, gold

St. Michael the Archangel

500 CE

Leaf of diptych
Classical elements, some naturalistic elements ignored (Michael is huge/has bad placement)
Floating = Byzantine

San Vitale

526 CE - 547 CE

Ravenna, Italy
Central plan
2-story ambulatory
Apse mosaic (Christ on world)

Hagia Sophia

532 - 537

by Athemius and Isidorus
Designed for Justinian
Dome on pendentives, windows give illusion of floating
4 minarets added later
Combined central/basilica plan

Justinian and Bishop/Theodora and Attendants

536 CE

Justinian - Emperor and Bishop's feet are at same place (church/state are equal)
Theodora - 3 magi on robes, rules rewritten so she could be empress, she's equal to Justinian (co-rulers)
Both are participating in Eucharist

San Apollinare

549 CE

St. Apollinare with 12 sheep (apostles)
Sheep are less natural (compare to Good Shepard in Gala Placidia)


726 CE - 850 CE

Icons banned, many destroyed

Middle Byzantine

850 CE - 1204 CE

Icons refurbished by Basil I

Theotokos and Child Enthroned

867 CE

Apse mosaic in Hagia Sophia (oldest surviving mosaic)
Christ is bigger than he should be as a baby
Not much emotion/perspective

St. Mark's

1063 CE

Cruciform plan - 5 domes over tips/center
Most lavish church in Venice
Has iconotasis

Vladimir Virgin

1110 CE

Egg tempera
Typical Byzantine figure (long nose, small mouth, flat silhouette)
Some emotion
Thumb Jesus

Christ as Pantokrater

1180 CE - 1190 CE

Christ, then Theotokos, then angels/saints
Christ is looming over congregation

Late Byzantine

1204 CE - 1453 CE

Constantinople sacked
Architecture more elaborate/dramatic
Murals/icons are livelier/less abstract
Many icons 2-sided (for parades)

Christ as Savior of Souls

1310 CE

Icon from St. Clement in Macedonia
Tempera on wood
Was on iconostasis
Typical pose (blessing whilst holding Bible)
Head/clothes don't seem to match up

Three Angels

1410 CE

by Andrei Rublev (considered master icon painter)
Tempera on wood
Identical figures
Vibrant colors


Dome of the Rock

687 CE - 692 CE

First Islamic architectural masterpiece
Byzantine influence in dome/central plan
Interior/exterior covered with arabesque mosaics
Inscriptions teach tenants of Islam

Great Mosque at Damascus

706 CE - 715 CE

Umayyid/Greco-Roman architecture
Meant to dazzle Christians

Malwiya Minaret

848 CE - 852 CE

Spiral ramp minaret
Compare to ziggurats
"Snail shell"

Great Mosque at Cordoba

900 CE

Double arcade in the hypostyle hall
Maqsura is inverse cloud shape
Mihrab dome is 8-point star, rests on squinches

Muqarnas Dome

1354 CE - 1391 CE

In Hall of Two Sisters
Muqarnas = stalactite-like forms, meant to scatter light
On squinches

Mosque of Selim II

1568 CE - 1575 CE

by Sinan (pioneered central-plan)
Based off of Hagia Sophia

Early Native American

Early African

Early Medieval

Sutton Hoo purse cover

625 CE

At ship burial
Cloisonne - metal pieces stick up, glass/stone embedded inside shape
Lots of animals/interlacing

Book of Durrow

670 CE

Man (symbol of St. Matthew)
On parchment (sheep hide)
Carpet page - resembles textiles

Lindisfarne Gospels

710 CE

Cross Carpet page - more decorative than Book of Durrow, combination of Christian imagery/Northern imagery (animals)
Saint Matthew - follows template (Matthew writes gospels), flat

Coronation Gospels

800 CE

St. Matthew - heavy drapery, no lines (all modulation)
"Gospel Book of Charlemagne)

Book of Kells

800 CE

Most elaborate insular (Celtic) Gospel book
XPI - says "this is how the birth of Christ came about" - text on opposite page is read on Christmas Day
Figures hidden throughout images

Palatine Chapel

800 CE

Chapel of Charlemagne - central plan
2-story apse with throne in front of apse on 2nd level
Charlemagne buried there

Ebbo Gospels

820 CE

Super gestural/frantic

Animal head post

825 CE

Viking burial
Head has interlaced animals
Chaotic yet controlled

Lindau Gospels

870 CE

Crucifixion - front cover (gold/precious stones/pearls)
Repousse, most lavish gospel

St. Michael's

1001 CE - 1031 CE

Abbey church, towers over crossing squares, entrances on sides
Crossing square set proportions
Bishop Bernwood - major benefactor/commissioner

Doors with Reliefs

1015 CE

In St. Michael's
Genesis on left, Life of Christ on right
Two doors parallel each other story-wise
Cloister doors

Columns with Reliefs


In St. Michael's
Compare to Column of Trajan
Continuous narrative of Christ (parts that're missing from doors)

Wooden Portal

1050 CE - 1070 CE

At stave church
Blind portal
Plants/animals interlaced on sides


Heavy walls, small windows, dark interiors

Cathedral Complex at Pisa

1063 CE - 1174

Baptistery -- Cathedral -- Campanile (bell tower) (Leaning Tower)

Saint Sernin

1070 CE - 1120 CE

Tower over crossing square, 4 side aisles, pilgrimage church

South Portal of Saint-Pierre

1115 CE - 1135 CE

Post and lintel
Trumeau in between doors
Highly decorative jambs
Tympanum overtop - Judgement themes to scare illiterate people into good behavior

Reliquary of St. Alexander


Silver repousse
Held relics

Eadwine at work

1160 CE - 1170 CE

In the Eadwine Psaltar
Generic (not a likeness)

King David in Niche

1180 CE - 1190 CE

On Fidenza Cathedral


The higher the Gothic, the higher the cathedral (also more rib vaults, more glass, more naturalistic statues)

L. Gothic

1100 - 1200

Start of nave elevation/vaulting

St. Denis


Built under Abbot Suger
First true Gothic cathedral
Lux nova - "new light" (more stained glass)

Notre Dame

1180 - 1200

Stained glass in triforium (oculi)
THE cathedral in Paris
Triple-bay facade (vertically)

Laon Cathedral


Some Romanesque features
Had gallery and triforium

Chartres Cathedral


Rebuilt in Gothic style in 1194 - originally built in 1134
Two towers are different
Relic is Virgin's Veil (almost destroyed in fire)
Royal Portal - on west facade, reliefs are Ascension, 2nd Coming, and Virgin with Child (for the illiterate), jamb statues are tall/similar/built into columns
Stained glass - Virgin and Child with Angels (16', 1170), Rose Window and Lancets (43', 1220)

H. Gothic

1200 - 1300

More stained glass/decoration
The later the Gothic, the more rib vaults, glass, and buttresses there are

Amiens Cathedral


Architect - Robert de Luzarches
Tallest/most volume of any French cathedral
Reims is similar to it (but more 'stretched')

Salisbury Cathedral

1220 - 1258

Crossing square tower predominates
Facade is wider than nave
Squat, double transept/square apse design
English style - early = decorated, late = perpendicular

Reims Cathedral

1225 - 1290

More stretched/elaborate than Amiens
Stained glass tympanums
Airy bell towers
Jamb statues - "Visitation" - very Roman (natural, contrapposto)

Ekkehard and Uta

1240 - 1255

Naumburg Master
Naumburg Cathedral
Benefactors wanted statues in cathedral
Bulky drapery yet elegant/delicate

Saint Chapelle


Inside is 3/4 stained glass
Created for Louis IX's relics (crown of thorns)
Rayonnant style

Cologne Cathedral


Changed German style from conservative (Romanesque) to super Gothic (loved French Gothic)
Comparable to Amiens
Tall lancet windows (except in triforium)
Very wide (wider than French cathedrals)
German style = more DRAMA, more VOLUME


1300 - 1400

Lots of stained glass
ex. Saint Chapelle - 3/4 stained glass, stone skeleton

Virgin and Child (Virgin of Paris)


In Notre Dame
Typical Gothic S-curve (unnatural)
Mary/Jesus portrayed royally
Elegant but unrealistic


1400 - 1525

Pointed arches/extensive tracery
ex. St. Maclou

Saint Maclou


Flamboyant style (lots of tracery)

14th c Italy

Santa Maria Novella

1246 - 1470

Marble striping on nave arcade
Originally had screen to separate friars/laypeople

Pisa Cathedral Bapistery

1259 - 1260

Nicola Pisano
15', marble
Detail is Annunciation/Nativity
Gothic/medieval elements
Resembles Greek sarcophagi

Madonna Enthroned with Angels/Prophets

1280 - 1290

^ master icon painter, last Maniera Greca painter
Byz Characteristics

Seated Apostles


Pietro Cavallini
detail of Last Judgement
Definite light source

Florence Cathedral


Architect = Arnolfo di Cambio
Dome = Brunelleschi
Very horizontal, with geometric shapes
"Gates of Heaven" - doors by Ghiberti


1297 - 1301

Giovanni Pisano
Style looser/more dynamic than father (Nicola)

Arena Chapel

1305 - 1306

Giotto di Bondone
buon frescoes
38 scenes, 3 layers (top=Mary's life, middle=Christ's mission, bottom=Passion/resurrection)
Grisaille - monochrome, usually grey (imitates sculpture)
Giotto was an OBSERVER - drew from nature

Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints

1308 - 1311

Duccio di Buoninsegna
in Maesta Altarpiece
Texture play with bright colors and loose drapery



Simone Martini / Lippo Memmi (?), tempera/gold leaf, 10'x9'
Some International Style (bright colors)
two outer saints are like jamb statues

Effects of Good Government in the City/Country

1338 - 1339

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Palazzo Publico, fresco
Crowded, with some perspective
Everyday life in peaceful times
Includes "Peaceful City" and "Peaceful Country" (first landscape in Western art [specific landscape])

Birth of the Virgin


Pietro Lorenzetti, 6'x5'
Frame makes it seem very 3D, illusionistic spatial-wise
Pietro was Duccio's student - probably died in the plague

Tabernacle of San Michele


Orcagna, Florence, mosaic/gold/marble
Panel insert is "Madonna/Child with Saints" - Daddi, 1347-1348
Dedicated to Black Death victims/survivors
Images are humanizing/light

15th c N Europe/Spain

Well of Moses

1395 - 1406

Claus Sluter, Chartreuse de Champmol, limestone, 6'
never finished (was a fountain, but went against vow of silence [was going to be placed in a monastery])
Supported a Crucifixion group (missing)
Represents fountain of life

Les Tres Riches Heures

1413 - 1416

Limbourg Brothers (Pol, Hennekin, Hermann), ink on vellum
Book of Hours - calendar/prayer book
Calendar scenes focus on peasantry/nobility (alternates)
Star charts at top reflect month depicted

Merode Altarpiece

1425 - 1428

Robert Campin (Master of Flemalle), oil on wood
Combination of religious/secular (Annunciation in normal house)
Symbolism - candle (Christ), hearth (home), mousetrap (trapping the devil), 3 bud flowers (trinity/unborn Christ), water (baptism)

Ghent Altarpiece


Jan van Eyck, oil on wood, 11'6"x7'6"
Front - red = donors pray to Grisaille saints, Annunciation
Inside - Humanity's redemption through Christ (upper = God/Mary/John the Baptist, angels, Adam/Eve) (lower = saints coming to Altar of the Lamb) (lower wings = hermits, knights, pilgrims, judges [temperance, fortitude, prudence, justice])

Giovanni Arnolfini and his Bride


Jan van Eyck, oil on wood
Marriage or business transfer
Meticulous detail/symbolism - mirror (God), candle (eye of God), dog (fidelity), bed (marriage), skirt bunching (childbirth), broom (domesticity), fine clothes (wealth)

Melun Diptych

1450 - 1451

Jean Fouquet, oil on wood
L = Etienne Chevalier (donor) with patron St. Stephen. Clear focus, Stephen has stones of martyrdom
R = Virgin and Child. Modeled after Charles VII's mistress, ornamental style

Last Supper

1464 - 1468

Dirk Bouts, Saint Peter's, Belgium, oil on wood, 5'x6'
Center panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament
ORTHOGONAL technique - lines converge at Christ's head

Portinari Altarpiece


Hugo van der Goes, Saint'Egido, tempera/oil
For Florence's largest hospital (child themes for maternity ward)
Landscape set high, different scales for the people
Medicinal plants in center

St. Anthony Tormented by Demons

1480 - 1490

Martin Schongauer, engraving
First major engraving piece
Hatching/pointillism used

Garden of Earthly Delights

1505 - 1510

Hieronymus Bosch, oil on wood
Creation of Eve - perfect world, some violent animals show what is to come, Adam/Eve are frail
Garden of Earthly Delights - Adam/Eve's sins (eating, sex, debauchery), high horizon
Hell - result of center, paying for sins, instruments = torture
Almost narrative
First surrealist piece?

15th c Italy

Sacrifice of Isaac

1401 - 1402

Brunelleschi, bronze
Conveys power/dramatic action
Lost competition for the doors of the Florence Cathedral

Sacrifice of Isaac

1401 - 1402

Lorenzo Ghiberti, bronze
Won the competition for the doors of the Florence Cathedral (north) (Gates of Heaven)
Elegant, classical (scenery, undraped Isaac, S-curve Abraham)

Four Crowned Martyrs

1408 - 1414

Nanni di Banco, Orsanmichele, marble
Figures are dramatic/heavy (could be seen from the ground)
Appear to be conversing with each other

High Renaissance/Mannerism

16th c N Europe/Spain


Late S/SE Asia

Late China/Korea

Late Japan



Late Native American


Late African