AP US History Timeline Jimmy and Blake

Analyze the ways in which farmers and industrial workers responded to Industrialization in the Gilded Age (1865-1900). Laborers after the civil war did not like industrialization and farmers as well as industrial workers responded to this transfer of attention off agriculture by demanding the implementing of laws, engaging in big court cases at the supreme level, and rioting for better work conditions.

Farmers

Grangers were Established

1867

Founded by Oliver H. Kelly in 1867.
Oliver H. Kelly- an official working in Washington DC for the Department of Agriculture.
A secret order founded to advance the social needs of farm life.
Tries to reverse the Economic backwardness of farm life.
Provided aid to its members with the goal of improving the poor current state of post-civil war farming.

Granger Laws

1869 - 1875

Called Granger Laws because they made decisions about the farmers.
Shaped the future of farming and help get it back on track after the civil war.
They were: Munn vs. Illinois, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company v. Iowa; Peik v. Chicago and Northwestern Railroad Company; Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul Railroad Company v. Ackley; Winona and Saint Paul Railroad Company v. Blake; and Stone v. Wisconsin

Munn vs. Illinios

1877

This case was an important Granger Case and it determined that states could regulate certain businesses in their borders, including railroads.
This was the longest Granger case and had a great impact on the others.
The case was over whether the act of the Illinois Legislature, 25 April 1871, to regulate public warehouses and the inspection and handling of grain, was constitutional.
The court's decision was that a private company could be regulated in the public interest, if the private company could be seen as a utility operating in the public interest.

Interstate Commerce Act

1887

The Interstate Commerce Act required that railroads charge fair rates to their customers and make those rates public. This made railroads available to the public and prohibited short haul/long haul fare discrimination, a form of price discrimination.

Omaha Platform

07/04/1892 - 1896

The Party Program adopted by the People's Party at the convention held in Omaha, Nebraska.
Written by Ignatius L. Donnelly.
Represented the merge between the Farmer's Alliance and the Greenback Party and was held on Independence Day to highlight it's goal of restoring power to the people.

Free Silver Platform

1896

This single plank free silver platform approach replaced the Omaha Platform of 1892.

Industrial Workers

National Labor Union

1866

The National Labor Union was the first national labor federation in the United States and it was led by William H. Sylvis.
It focused on labor reforms and was a strong supporter of the Eight hour day.
Desired the creation of a National Labor Party.
Used arbitration to make reforms.

Knights of Labor

1869

An American labor organization led by Terence V. Powderly.
Wanted the social status of the working man to be improved and demanded eight hour days.
Lasted until 1949.

Great Railroad Strike

1877

Railroad workers were facing hard times but it seemed to them like the railroad companies continued to make a lot of money.
Then four of the largest railroads decided to cut wages for their employees by ten percent.
The workers then went on strike and President Hayes had to call in federal troops to battle the strike.
Resulted in 100 people dead.
This revolt had a great affect on other places because work stoppages and atriking spread due to influence from this famous strike.

Haymarket Riot

1886

A mass meeting was called to take place on May 4th.
The meeting was to discuss work labor and to reduce the amount of hours people could work in one day.
The police saw this meeting to be dangerous and didn't want it to continue.
The location for the meeting was to be Haymarket Square in Chicago, an open area used for public markets.
When the police tried to break up the crowd, a bomb was thrown and then the police started shooting their guns at the crowd.
Seven policemen were killed.
Four civilians were also killed.
More than 100 persons were injured.
This incident led to a trial where 4 people, who may have been innocent, were executed.

American Federation of Labor

1886

The American Federation of Labor was an association of Labor Unions which all looked to the Federation for guidance and strategy but still remained independent unions for the most part.
It shows how people responded to industrialization because it is a symbol for the unsatisfied feeling evident among the industrial workers.
Samuel Gompers was its main leader throughout the Gilded Age.