Bilcheck Putnam AP Project


Andrew Johnson

1865 - 1869

Ulysses S. Grant

1869 - 1877

Rutherford B. Hayes

1877 - 1881

Chester A. Arthur

1881 - 1885

James A. Garfield


Grover Cleveland

1885 - 1889

Benjamin Harrison

1889 - 1893

Grover Cleveland

1893 - 1897


National Labor Union


Labor unions which were previously weak, scattered, and unorganized, were strengthened in post Civil War America. The drastic loss of human life during the Civil War, along with a rising cost of living led to the creation of hundreds of worker unions and many new nation labor unions. The National Labor Union was an early attempt to organize unions in America. It lasted 6 years and attracted an involvement of some 600,000 members.

Tenure of Office Act


Enacted by the Republican Congress over President Johnson's veto. This law decreed that in order for the President to remove appointees, he first had to gain approval of the Senate. President Johnson ignored this law when he fired Edwin Stanton, the Secretary of War, and this law was used as a basis for impeachment.

Reconstruction Act

March 2, 1867

This act was the Republican Congress' plan to deal with reconstruction which began March 2, 1867 and ended in 1877 with the election of Rutherford B. Hayes for President. It divided the South into five military districts each which would be governed by a Union General with Union soldiers enforcing the law. It also disenfranchised thousands of Confederates, many of whom were previously pardoned by President Johnson. Finally, it required Confederate states to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and allow black suffrage in their state constitutions.

President Johnson's Impeachment and Acquittal


The House of Representatives voted to impeach President Johnson for his "high crimes" of violating the Tenure of Office Act along with other minor and imaginary crimes. Johnson was acquitted by the Senate by one vote which was important in balancing power. The power of the President over Congress would have drastically decreased if they had removed him from office.

Knights of Labor


Also known as the Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor. It began as an almost secret club with an entrance ritual and other secret policies. They wanted to allow all workers to enter a single union and accept men and women of any religion or race. They sought economic and social reform along with the creation of safety codes in order to protect their workers.

Panic of 1873


The panic was caused by a number of factors, the biggest being over-speculation in railroads, mines, factories, and grain fields. Much of the over-speculation was caused by banks approving an increasing number of loans, many of which went unpaid. With money being an issue, it led Grant to sign the Resumption Act.

Civil Rights Act of 1875


The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was the last major piece of legislature passed by the Republican controlled Congress. The goal of the act was to ban racial discrimination in major areas including jury selection and public places. Most of the act was found to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court who ruled that individuals could not be forced to ensure the civil rights of others.

Resumption Act


This act was passed under President Grant and was backed by advocates of deflation. After the Panic of 1873, there was a push from many farming and debtor societies to print more money which would give people in debt a means to pay off their loans. However, the creditors did not want depreciated money, so they pushed for this bill which withdrew greenbacks from circulation and redeemed paper money to gold.

Compromise of 1877


An agreement reached by Democrats and Republicans concerning the election of 1877. Samuel Tilden, a Democrat, and Rutherford B. Hayes, a Republican, both ran for President and received an electoral vote that was controversial. The Presidency was to be decided by an electoral commission set up by the Electoral Count Act. To prevent this from happening, both sides met and agreed to this compromise which determined that Hayes would be President, withdrew troops from Louisiana and South Carolina, and agreed to subsidize a southern transcontinental railroad.

American Federation of Labor and the "closed shop" approach


This federation was largely developed by Samuel Gompers who was president of the federation for almost every year from 1886 to 1924. It was made up of many national unions who all used similar strategies for protesting, the main method being the "closed shop" approach. This approach used boycotts and walkouts, and they raised money to pay workers during strikes and defend individuals.

Haymarket Square

May 4, 1886

The Haymarket Square issue began with the rise of the Knights of Labor which led many strikes and protests, a major example being a protest in Chicago. When this began in Chicago, police were called to end a meeting protesting abuse at the hands of authorities. A bomb was thrown and dozens of people died, which led to the arrest of eight anarchists and future protests surrounding the event.

Homestead Strike


The Homestead Strike began with the formation of the People's party who sought inflation and wanted to increase the the value of silver. They also sought more civilian participation in passing legislature, limits on presidency, and industrial restrictions including shorter workdays. This led to nationwide strikes which climaxed in the Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel plant in Pittsburgh where hundreds of detectives were hired to end a large strike over pay cuts.


Tenant Farming and Sharecropping


Even though slaves were now free to pursue their own economic ventures, many were tricked into entering a system similar to slavery itself. Former masters became the creditors to African Americans who spun themselves into an endless web of debt. Blacks would rent out land or supplies which they would use to pay back merchants or landowners. As they continued to rent more land and supplies they were continuously in debt until they became reliant on the merchant or landowner entering a system identical to the "peculiar institution."

First Black Code Passed


The first pieces of legislation passed by the New South were the Black Codes which attempted to take away many of the rights of emancipated slaves and strengthen white supremacy. Mississippi was the first state to pass Black Codes and other states quickly followed, but the severity varied from state to state. The Black Codes primary purpose was to ensure a stable and subservient labor force. Some states even made it legal to have an arrangement that closely resembled slavery.

13th Amendment Passed


President Abraham Lincoln believed that a new amendment was necessary to finally end the institution of slavery. The Thirteenth Amendment was passed eight months after the Civil War and it officially ended slavery. It was the beginning of a group of acts and Amendments which supported the rights of African Americans.

Ku Klux Klan


The Ku Klux Klan or KKK was founded in Tennessee in 1866 to oppose black involvement in government. The Klan used flogging, mutilation, and even murder as methods of intimidating African Americans and white abolitionists. In 1870 and 1871, Congress passed harsh Force Acts to put a stop to the night-riding lawlessness. These were responses to the "radical" rule that the South was experiencing.

14th Amendment


After the North passed the civil rights bill, the North began to fear that the South would repeal it when they began to gain power in Congress. The Amendment was passed partially to suppress the South's ability to take away or inhibit the rights of slaves. It gave most major civil rights except enfranchisement to blacks, reduced representation of a state in Congress depending on whether it allows blacks to vote, disqualified Confederate leaders from holding office, and promised to repudiate federal debt. It was vehemently opposed in the South.

Reconstruction Act of 1867


This act passed by Congress on March 2nd split the South into five military districts. Each district was commanded by a Union General and was policed by Union soldiers. This act disfranchised tens of thousands of former Confederates. Readmission was now under more stringent conditions and required the Southern states to pass the 14th Amendment.

15th Amendment


It was the final Amendment passed by the radical Republican majority Congress. It ensured that blacks would receive suffrage and because it was an amendment, reversing it would be incredibly difficult.

End of Reconstruction


Reconstruction finally ended with the Compromise of 1877 which was a deal between the Democrats and Republicans to get President Rutherford B. Hayes in office. White Southerners considered Reconstruction a more grievous wound than the war itself. Given the harsh realities surrounding the war and the brutality of the fighting, many radical Republicans sought a harsher Reconstruction while many southerners vehemently opposed the weakening of white supremacy.

Southern Industry


When Reconstruction began, industrialization slowly increased in the South and sparked the creation of more railroads. Even though the South became more industrialized, it came with corruption, was lead by "carpetbaggers," and the economy started to get better. With the help of Henry Grady's speeches, the South became more industrialized, especially in agriculture, and gained regional pride.

Henry Grady Speeches


This was a speech made by Henry Grady who was a leading exponent in the "New South" based on industrial development. Henry Grady made speeches throughout the country and wrote articles and editorials in his newspapers. A major speech was was given in New York and conveyed a message of a hope for industrialization in the South.

Plessy vs. Ferguson


In this case, the Supreme Court validated the South's segregationist social order. It ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were constitutional under the "equal protection" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In realty the life of an African-American was unequal to that of whites.


Homestead Act


This act, which was enacted in 1862 during the Civil War, influenced the post Civil War West because it provided that any adult citizen, who had never borne arms against the U.S. government, could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land. Those who received the land had to improve upon it by building housing and other specific needs. After 5 years the tenant could own the land for a small fee.

The National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry


The leader of the National Grange was Oliver H. Kelly, a farmer from Minnesota. Kelly wanted to enhance the lives of farmers who were isolated. Farmers who were cursed with loneliness found the Grange's concerts, picnics, and lectures a godsend. In 1875, the National Grange consisted of 800,000 members chiefly in the Midwest.

Crime of '73


The Crime of '73 occurred when Congress stopped coining silver dollars against the will of farmers and other westerners who wanted unlimited coinage of silver. With no silver coming into the federal government, no silver money could be produced. Westerners from silver-mining states joined with debtors in demanding a return to the "Dollar of Our Daddies." This demand was essentially a call for inflation, which was solved by contraction and the Treasury's accumulation of gold.

Farmers Alliance


The Farmers Alliance was founded in 1877 in Texas and growth was slow and membership was nonexistent. The two major economic strategies of the Farmer Alliance were soon implemented after increased membership in the alliance. First, farmers sought cheaper farming machinery which at the time was very expensive. Second, they focused on the marketing system, especially the decreasing price of cotton and excessive income made by the middlemen in the sale of cotton.

Mechanization of Agriculture


The West now had an industrial boom in the form of agricultural machinery. As farms in the West increased in size, smaller farmers were driven to industrial work. Soon, almost every major farm was tied to banking, the production of railroads, and manufacturing. Major farms had to buy expensive machinery in order to plant and harvest their crops, which made the business of agriculture similar to that of a factory. Widespread use of these expensive machines allowed for increased wealth in large farms and made western America a major factor in food production.

Chinese Exclusion Act


In the 1870's to 1880's, there was an increase in Asian immigration to western America. This led to opposition from the native Irish especially against the Chinese. Irish gangs in California terrorized Asian immigrants who already worked tougher jobs and made less money than the Irish. Congress ended Chinese immigration with this act in an attempt to suppress the issue.

Dawes Severalty Act


This act abolished many Native tribes and sold land not given to Native Americans to railroad companies and other white settlers. It wiped out ownership of land by tribes while giving land instead to the leaders of families within the tribes. Native Americans would get the full title to these lands as well as citizenship if they behaved like "good white settlers."

Interstate Commerce Act


This act, which was passed by Congress, ended the practice of creating rebates and "pools" while requiring railroad companies, many who were accused of fraudulent activities, to publish their rates openly. It also forbade discrimination against shippers and outlawed charging more for short distance shipping compared to long distance along the same railroad track.