The Democrats were originally pledging lower tariffs in the creation of this proposed tariff reform bill, where it added a number of items to the free list, including sugar, lumber, coal and wool. Further, the duties on imported manufactured goods would be reduced while maintaining their protective nature. But, by the time in passed through Congress, it was attached with 600 amendments, many of which were special-interest protection to big business. It destroyed its reform intent, where the resulting Wilson-Gorman Tariff offered slight reductions in the overall average rates, an improvement over the McKinley Tariff, but not an example of tariff reform. The tariff also contained an income tax provision , which survived and became law. In 1895, however, the Supreme Court ruled the tax unconstitutional. Through this ruling, the Populists and South and West were convinced that the judicial system was working hand-in-glove with big business.