Pagliaro and Madar Law Firm

The Civil War was the most violent and destructive war in American history. With a war of this magnitude came life altering changes to the political and economic scene in the North, South, and West. In the immediate years after the Civil War, American politics made a shift of complete power to the North which gave them the ability to pass laws and amendments with ease, economically; the South struggled to get back on track after the decimation of their plantations and cities by union soldiers, the West was now more appealing to southerners and freedmen, and a new industrial age started to blossom in the decades after the war.


Dominance of Power


Political- From the start of the civil war to well after the end, the northern Republicans had complete control of the government. A Republican congress had complete control over the country and passed many harsh tariff laws that heavily taxed plantations in the south. The president would remain from the time of Lincoln, Republican for almost 30 years. When the democrats were offered readmission into the union then the Republican congressmen resented and refused to acknowledge them as senators.


1862 - 1900

Economic- The civil war was the major force of industrialization in both the north and the south. During the war the amount of men leaving from the north made the factories and companies lose production. Machines had to come into play. The growth of these mechanized helpers helped to industrialize the north. factories gradually required less and less people and the production rates kept rising. New inventions helped to make life and work easier for the everyday man. The always expanding railroad network in the US made the large distance that previously separated people seem much smaller.

Pacific Railway Act

July 1, 1862

Economic- this bill called for a transcontinental railway that connected the east and west. This railroad would be paid for by the bonds the government was selling as well as the land grants given to railway companies. Some of the details of this act were modified by other similar acts later on

Morill Land Grant Act

July 2, 1862

Economic- This allowed for the setup of 'Land Grant Colleges'. These colleges taught people moving westward from the north the skills of farming, agriculture, and other vitals to life on the frontier. They also gave small grants of land, usually a few acres, to farmers that moved westward from the north so that they would have somewhere to live and grow food.

Boss Tweed

1868 - 1878

Economic- Boss Tweed was the governor of new york. Famous for his corruption he was able to pay off all of New York and control every aspect. He was eventually taken down in 1877 a year before he died. This was a symbol of the corrupt nature of the major cities

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

February 24, 1868

:Political- Andrew Johnson wasn't like by many of his comrades. Being the lone democratic president in a congress overwhelmingly republican caused many clashes. When Johnson tried to remove his secretary of war from office, Edwin Stanton, the republicans weren't pleased. They had recently passed the Tenure of Office act, making all firings from the presidents cabinet requiring senate approval. Johnson was then voted to impeach but was slowly won over by one vote in the senate.

Whiskey Ring


Political- the whiskey ring was a scandal that shifted tax revenues and collections among government officials, agents, and whiskey distillers. It started off in St. Louis but was eventually spread to more cities such as Chicago, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, and New Orleans. Head republicans in these cities would take tax revenue and spend it on liquor. Benjamin Bristow, The secretary of the treasury, treasury broke the scandal in 1875 when he sent in undercover agents as whiskey distillers. Over 100 people were convicted and over $3 million were recovered. This only demonstrated the political scandals occurring at the time.

Credit Mobilier


Political- the credit Mobilier was the construction company used to build the western half of the transcontinental railroad. Oakes Ames, a republican congressman bought shares of Credit Mobilier and distributed them to others in congress. The company did better and better gaining more profit from their construction as well as the sale of bonds at a low return rate. Thomas Durant, the owner, then split his enormous profits with the shareholders in congress in exchange for more land grants to continue the expansion of his railroad. An estimated $43 Million was made in profits from this deal and pocketed by US senators.

Gilded Age

1877 - 1893

Economic- This was an age after the civil war of great economic boom for the US. Millions of people came from Europe and immigrated to the US. The railroad was the major source of revenue and industry. The factory system started to emerge with the production or iron, and gold.

Compromise of 1877


Political- this compromise ended the reconstruction in the south. In exchange for a victory over Samuel Tilden in the presidential election, Rutherford B. Hayes took all union troops out of the south and allowed the southern governments to regain control of their land and people. This compromise effectively marked the end of Reconstruction.

Plessy Vs. Ferguson


Political- This landmark case stated that the Blacks and whites in the north had to be given separate bathrooms, seats, and areas but they had to be equal to the white areas. The two races couldn't interact or be together in most public areas.


Johnson's Reconstruction Plan


Political - After Lincoln's assassination, Andrew Johnson took over as president and brought changes with him. Johnson laid out a more severe plan than Lincoln's "Ten Percent Plan." Johnson disenfranchised all former Confederate military and civil officers and all those who owned property worth more than $20,000. This was meant to cause a shift in the South's political structure by removing the power from the wealthy aristocrats and shift power to the small farmers. The plan also forced the Southern states to ratify the 13th amendment which would free all slaves at the end of 1865.

Tenant Farming and Sharecropping


Economic - After the Civil War ended and the 13th Amendment was passed, many farms on the south were out of the ability to work their large plantations. This, combined with the newly freed slaves needing work to support themselves, turned into the development of the practice of tenant farming and sharecropping. Tenant farmers rented out land to people in need of work and were paid back with a share of the turnout or a sum of money. Sharecropping is a type of tenant farming in which a landowner gives a share of land to someone and in turn they are paid with a share of the crop turnout. This runs risks for the owner of the land whom could risk losing money depending on the turnout. Directly after the Civil War, southern farm owners used this as a form of "legal slavery." A never ending cycle in which the person farming the share of land, usually black, would fall into a string of debt year after year.



Economic - After any war usually comes along with it an amount of money lost through property damages and so on. In the South, inflation after the War rose to 9000%. This was a result of total war tactics by Union generals on the South which relied on agriculture to sustain its economy. After the Civil War, the South still relied mainly on agriculture, but with the Second Industrial Revolution, they did gain more production through industrialization; through things such as improved railroads and building textile and steel mills.

Black Codes

November 1865

Political - Passed by the southern states, the Black Codes were designed to limit the affairs of the now emancipated blacks. The main goal of the Black Codes was to ensure a stable and subservient labor force; now that slavery was abolished. The Black Codes essentially turned the freedmen into a kind of "legal slaves." In response to the Black Codes, the Freedmen's Bureau was set up to help freed slaves adjust to life as a free person.

13th Amendment Enacted

December 8, 1865

Economic - The thirteenth amendment was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864 and the House on January 31, 1865 and officially incorporated on December 6, 1865. The amendment stated "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." The freeing of some 3.5 million slaves had a huge impact on the southern economy. The South relied on agriculture as the main source of income and with the slaves now freed, huge plantations were left with no one to tend to them. The South's only economic reliability was taken away from them and all the money they had invested on the slaves was now gone.

Ku Klux Klan


Political - Founded in Tennessee in 1866, the KKK was a secret white-supremacist group. One of many secret organizations that were formed to try and restore some order to their now broken society. The KKK was a racist group that opposed the Reconstruction and terrorized blacks and carpetbaggers to show resistance.

14th Amendment Enacted

July 9, 1868

Political - In summary, the 14th amendment basically said ex-slaves were now citizens and were guaranteed civil rights and if any state tries to go against this amendment will have reduced representation. With the slaves now freed and recognized as citizens, the South actually gained an advantage on the political side of things. Therefore they could gain more representation in the House because slaves would now count as a whole citizen as opposed to three-fifths.


Homestead Act

May 20, 1862

Political- Signed by President Lincoln on May 20, 1862, this act allotted land for little to no cost. Anyone who hadn't fought against the United States Government and was over the age of 21 could apply for land.

Construction Of Railroads


Economic- After the civil war the construction of railroads to the west was started. This allowed more people to move westward and allowed for transportation of goods to the western cities. Many western cities started to grow in population as a result of this.

Indian Wars

1865 - 1924

Political- the clash with Native Americans would continue in the West until halfway through the 20th century. This conflict caused heated tension on the western front of the United States.

National Farmers Alliance


Economic- The National Farmers Alliance was one of the first unions formed in the US. This group of farmers from the mid and north west US was a large influence on the political and economic spectrum. There were similar farmer union's in the north and south. They wanted to work towards better conditions for the farmers in the US and try to combat inflation prices.

Free Silver Movement


Political-in 1873 congress omitted the silver dollar from the US treasury. This enraged owners of silver mines in the west and people that owned large amounts of silver. A movement began to restore the use of the silver dollar to national currency. The Bland-Allison act of 1878 returned the silver dollar to the national stage and removed the exclusion of the silver dollar from the national currency.

Chinese Exclusion Act

May 6, 1882

Political-signed on May 6, 1882, this act allowed the federal government to suspend Chinese immigration and stopped the income of Chinese immigrants to California.

Interstate Commerce Act

February 4, 1887

Political- this act called for railway construction rates to be fair and just. It did not allow how ever for the federal government to regulate the price of these railroads. It set up the interstate commerce commission. This commission heard complaints about the unfair railroad practices and issued cease and desist orders to railroads that were charging to much.


Abraham Lincoln

March 4, 1861 - April 15, 1865


Andrew Johnson

April 15, 1865 - March 4, 1869

Ulysses S. Grant

March 4, 1869 - March 4, 1877

Rutherford B. Hayes

March 4, 1877 - March 4, 1881

James Garfield

March 4, 1881 - September 19, 1881


Chester A. Arthur

September 19, 1881 - March 4, 1885

Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1885 - March 4, 1889

Benjamin Harrison

March 4, 1889 - March 4, 1893

Grover Cleveland

March 4, 1893 - March 4, 1897

William McKinley

March 4, 1897 - September 14, 1901