Even after the Rebellion of 1837, the reform movement was still strong. The leader of the French reformers LaFontaine and the leader of the English reformers Baldwin still believed the the colonies can still fight for unitement of the colonies even after the rebellion.
Mercantilism (mercantile trade system) means perfered. Mercantilism is the old trade system used during the colonial era. Basicaly all it means is that a colonial power like Britain give "perferencial" treatment to its own colonies like British North America. Mercantilism was good for the 5 British colonies because they always had a secure market to sell their raw materials. It was also good for Britian because they always had a secure supply of raw materials which they controlled
English immigration to Canada West increased the English speaking population by 300,000 more than the French speaking Canada East.
Upper and Lower Canada were united into Canada West (Ontario) and Canada East (Quebec)
This was the first real test of Responsible Government. This bill would pay damages to innocent French Canadians who lost property during the Rebellion of 1837. The rich hated this law and demanded that Lord Elgin not sign the Bill, but Baldwin & Lafontaine, the leaders of the reformers, said he must sign to have Responsible Government.
Political deadlock is when a government can't decide on a law to pass because the political parites have an even amount of votes. On June 14, 1864 MacDonald's government was defeated by 2 votes and couldn't get any bills passed. All political parties were evenly divided and no party had enough votes to win any decision.
With insificent amount of trucks connecting from Onterio (Canada West) to Halifax there was no way of trading amoung each other. In 1850 3570km of track (Grand Trunk Railway) was added to the colonies.
This was an important trade deal negotiated beween the British Colonies (Canada) and the United States. This treaty allowed the British Colonies to sell goods in the U.S. market without taxes or tariffs. In return the U.S. was allowed fishing rights off Nova Scotia. This was a good deal for Canada and gave economic stability. It was a 10 year agreement. When the U.S. said they were going to end the treaty, the colonies decided they needed free trade among themselves. They could trade easier by uniting themsevles.
Politicians from New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and P.E.I met to discuss the union of the maritime colonies.as a result of the Charlotte Town Conferrence the Maritime delegates set aside the idea of a Maritime union. They argreed to meet with the Canadians at Quebec city in October.
7 delegates from New Brunswick, 7 from PEI and 5 from Nova Scotia met the 12 delegates from Canada East and Canada West, and 2 officials from Newfoundland meet in discuss a union. The make 72 resolutions. .
A coalition government is a joining of diffrent political parties into one government togethter they can do what one party couldn't do by itself.
-5 colonies can trade amoung themselves
-5 colonies can create there own army for their common defence
-Stay close to britian and not be american-including defending
-room to grow westward by have britain sell us their land-and keeping the west out of U.S hands
-Even all colonies together have a small population
-colonies have similar resources
-Colonies behind in railways, roads
-Small population-would have small army which would be vunerable to the U.S
Fenians were mad at Britain because Britain controlled all of England. So instead of attacking England itself, they decided to attack something smaller and closer, so they decided to attack the smaller colonies of British North America.
The London Conderence was held to choose the fate of British North America. Britain favoured the confederation, because without the colonies Britain had less responbilities. In 1867 Britain was introduced with the BNA Act (British North-America Act), the act was built around the 72 reolutions. In this act the four colonies had the right to join to form there own country. So on July.1st,1867 Queen Victoria signed the act and it would proclaim the day it woul come into effect.