Henry won the throne when he defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field.
Henry was considered an attractive, educated and accomplished king in his prime and has a reputation as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne"
Edward's reign was marked by economic problems and social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot and rebellion. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from there and Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace.
As the fourth crowned monarch of the Tudor dynasty, Mary is remembered for her restoration of Roman Catholicism after the short-lived Protestant reign of her half-brother
In government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. One of her mottoes was "video et taceo" ("I see, and say nothing"). In religion she was relatively tolerant, avoiding systematic persecution. After 1570, when the pope declared her illegitimate and released her subjects from obedience to her, several conspiracies threatened her life. All plots were defeated, however, with the help of her ministers' secret service.
The battle of Bosworth is one of the most important battles in English history. It led to the War of the Roses, and planted the Tudor house on the throne of England.
Two branches of the royal family were fighting for thirty years over who was to be king of England. The rivals were called the House of Lancaster who had a red rose badge or emblem and the House of York which had a white rose emblem. This war was called The War of the Roses.
Richard III was the leader of the House of York and Henry was the leader of the House of Lancaster.The last battle took place at Bosworth Field in 1485. Henry defeated Richard and became King of England .
He married Elizabeth of York to unite the two sides.The two houses were merged to form an alliance with the Tudor rose as a symbol of unity. Henry VII became the first Tudor king.
A man called Christopher Columbus was convinced the world was round but most people thought it was flat and ships would fall off the edge if they went too far. Columbus said that he could sail to the Spice Islands by going round the world, westwards instead of east. He set off in 1492 and landed on some islands. He thought he had reached Asia but he had found America. He did not know that you could sail westwards to Asia but America was in the way and you had to go round it. He brought back gold, cotton plants and "Indians" to Portugal.
Cabot's birthplace is in Italy. In Italian he is known today as Giovanni Caboto, in English as John Cabot, in French as Jean Cabot, and in Spanish as Juan Caboto. The non-Italian forms reflect references to him in the related 15th-century documents. Only one set of documents has been found bearing his signature. These are Venetian testamentary documents of 1484, on which he signed as "Zuan Chabotto", "Zuan" being a form of "John" typical to Venice. That he continued to use this form in England, at least among Italians, is supported by two letters referring to him that were written by others in London in 1497. One, from a London-based Venetian, gives Cabot's first name as Zuam. Another, from the Milanese Ambassador, spells his name Zoane. In a document identified in October 2010, he is described by his Italian banker in London as 'Giovanni Chabbote', this being the only known contemporary document to use this version of his first name
In 1520 a grand meeting was arranged between Henry VIII and Francis I, king of France, to make peace. It took place near Calais, and was called "The Field of the Cloth of Gold" because of all the rich materials used for the tents and decorations. Both kings were in competition to look the best and have the best things. They became friends for three years but later were at war again.
Henry wanted to divorce his Spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon, and marry Anne Boleyn. So he sent Wolsey to Rome to ask the pope for permission. The pope said no because he didn't want to upset Charles V of Spain. This made Henry angry he divorced Catherine anyway and made himself the head of the Church of England breaking off all connections to Rome.
Henry was bankrupt and needed to find money. He ordered Thomas Cromwell to shut down all of the monasteries and take their land and wealth. Parliament passed an act "dissolving" or getting rid of the monasteries. They sent the priests away, seized the money and treasures and destroyed the buildings.
Kathryn Howard was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard, a younger brother of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk. She was also first cousin to Anne Boleyn, Henry's ill-fated second Queen. She was brought up in the household of the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk. As part of the Duchess' household, she would have spent most of her time at Lambeth and Horsham.
Mary Stuart was a cousin to Elizabeth and a rival to the throne. Mary was queen of Scotland and catholics thought she should be queen of England as well. There was a rebellion in Scotland in 1567 and Mary fled to England. She became the centre of attempts to kill Elizabeth. Elizabeth imprisoned her in England. A letter was found that was about a plot to kill Elizabeth and make Mary queen. Mary was found guilty of treason and executed at Fotheringay Castle in February 1587.
England defeats a great Spanish fleet and prevents an invasion.
Christopher Columbus (Italian: Cristoforo Colombo; Spanish: Cristóbal Colón; Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo; before 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an explorer, navigator, and colonizer, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, initiated the Spanish colonization of the New World.