Henry won the throne when he defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. He was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the Wars of the Roses.
Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church.
also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots.
She was the only surviving child born of the ill-fated marriage of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Her younger half-brother, Edward VI, succeeded Henry in 1547. When Edward became mortally ill in 1553, he attempted to remove Mary from the line of succession because of religious differences. On his death, their cousin Lady Jane Grey was at first proclaimed queen. Mary assembled a force in East Anglia and successfully deposed Jane, who was ultimately beheaded. In 1554, Mary married Philip of Spain, becoming queen consort of Habsburg Spain on his accession in 1556.
Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
Although armed clashes had occurred previously between supporters of York and Lancaster, the first open fighting broke out in 1455 at the First Battle of St Albans. Several prominent Lancastrians died, but their heirs continued a deadly feud with Richard. Although peace was temporarily restored, the Lancastrians were inspired by Margaret of Anjou to contest York's influence. Fighting resumed more violently in 1459.
A man called Christopher Columbus was convinced the world was round but most people thought it was flat and ships would fall off the edge if they went too far. Columbus said that he could sail to the Spice Islands by going round the world, westwards instead of east. He set off in 1492 and landed on some islands. He thought he had reached Asia but he had found America. He did not know that you could sail westwards to Asia but America was in the way and you had to go round it. He brought back gold, cotton plants and "Indians" to Portugal
Mary Queen of Scots is imprisoned and her husband, Lord Darnley, murdered
William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway on November 28, 1582, in Worcester, in Canterbury Province. Hathaway was from Shottery, a small village a mile west of Stratford. William was 18 and Anne was 26, and, as it turns out, pregnant. Their first child, a daughter they named Susanna, was born on May 26, 1583. Two years later, on February 2, 1585, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. Hamnet later died of unknown causes at age 11.
After the birth of the twins, there are seven years of William Shakespeare's life where no records exist